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Potential impact of native natural enemies on Galerucella spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) imported for biological control of purple loosestrife: a field evaluation


, : Potential impact of native natural enemies on Galerucella spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) imported for biological control of purple loosestrife: a field evaluation. Biological Control 7(1): 60-66

Can resident natural enemies impede the action of herbivores introduced for biological control of weeds, and if so, can their level of activity be predicted from tests that use resident herbivores as hosts? To examine these questions, exclusion experiments were done at three sites in central New York State which focused on the leaf beetle Galerucella nymphaeae in stands of the introduced weed, purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). This beetle is congeneric with two European species (G. calmariensis and G. pusilla) that are being imported and distributed in North America for biological control of purple loosestrife. General predators, including the ubiquitous lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata, preyed on G. nymphaeae eggs from late spring to the end of summer. During this period, approximately one-third of G. nymphaeae's egg masses were attacked, whereas the proportion of eggs within each egg mass that were damaged or consumed increased from about 50 to 90%. At all sites, the survival of G. nymphaeae larvae and pupae was lower in open than in closed cages during mid- and late summer, but not earlier. The presence of arthropod predators and the absence of parasitized or diseased beetles indicate that predators were largely responsible for the reduced survival in open cages. From these results, we predict that resident species of general predators, at times, may hinder the colonization or effectiveness of the European G. calmariensis and G. pusilla. Therefore, the continued use of protective cages when making introductions and during subsequent distribution of these natural enemies is desirable. Moreover, the action of general predators should be considered in subsequent evaluations of biological control efforts involving Galerucella spp.


Accession: 003237102

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Related references

Nechols, J., R.; Obrychki, J., J.; Tauber, C., A.; Tauber, M., J., 1996: Potential impact of native natural enemies of Galerucella spp. (Coleoptera; Chrysomelidae) imported for biological control of purple loosestrife: A field evaluation. Can resident natural enemies impede the action of herbivores introduced for biological control of weeds, and if so, can their level of activity be predicted from tests that use resident herbivores as hosts? To examine these questions, exclusion ex...

Corrigan, JE.; Mackenzie, DL.; Simser, L., 1998: Field observations of non-target feeding by Galerucella calmariensis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), an introduced biological control agent of purple loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria (Lythraceae). Purple loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria L., is a herbaceous wetland perennial native to Eurasia. It is an invasive species of temperate wetland ecosystems in North America. In 1992, three species of insect herbivores from Europe, including Galerucel...

Kok, L.T.; McAvoy, T.J.; Malecki, R.A.; Hight, S.D.; Drea, J.J.; Couson, J.R., 1992: Host specificity tests of Galerucella calmariensis (L.) and G. pusilla (Duft.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), potential biological control agents of purple loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria L. (Lythraceae). Two Eurasian beetles (G. calmariensis and G. pusilla), which are natural enemies of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), were tested for host specificity on 15 species of plants. The plants were selected on the basis of preliminary tests by the...

Blossey, Bernd., 1995: Impact of Galerucella pusilla and G. calmariensis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on field populations of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). Unknown

Lindgren, C.J., 2000: Performance of a biological control agent, Galerucella calmariensis L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on purple loosestrife Lythrum salicaria Lin Southern Manitoba (1993-1998). In an effort to control the exotic perennial purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) the leaf-defoliating beetle Galerucella calmariensis L. was released in Manitoba, Canada. To monitor the performance of the biocontrol agent, fixed monitoring s...

Grevstad, F.S., 2006: Ten-year impacts of the biological control agents Galerucella pusilla and G. calmariensis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in Central New York State. More than a decade has passed since the biological control agents Galerucella pusilla and G. calmariensis (Chrysomelidae) were introduced into North America for biological control of the wetland weed purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). This st...

Lindgren, C.J.; Gabor, T.S.; Murkin, H.R., 1998: Impact of triclopyr amine on Galerucella calmariensis L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and a step toward integrated management of purple loosestrife Lythrum salicaria L. There is a need to investigate the potential for the integration of classical biological control strategies with herbicidal control strategies for the management of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in North America. The objectives of this st...

Albright, M.F.; Harman, W.N.; Fickbohm, S.S.; Meehan, H.; Groff, S.; Austin, T., 2004: Recovery of native flora and behavioral responses by Galerucella spp. following biological control of purple loosestrife. Goodyear Swamp Sanctuary, a wetland adjacent to Otsego Lake, Otsego County, New York, USA, has been dominated by the invasive nonnative plant purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) since 1975. In June 1997, a combined total of 100 adult G. calmari...

Schooler, S.S.; Coombs, E.M.; McEvoy, P.B., 2003: Nontarget effects on crepe myrtle by Galerucella pusilla and G. calmariensis (Chrysomelidae), used for biological control of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). Field experiments were used to assess how distance mediates the nontarget effect on crepe myrtle by two chrysomelid beetles that were introduced to the United States in 1992 for biological control of purple loosestrife. Previous laboratory tests i...

Blossey, B.; Schat, M., 1997: Performance of Galerucella calmariensis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on different North American populations of purple loosestrife. The success of a biological weed control program depends on the ability of control agents to develop on various genotypes of their host plants, thereby reducing the competitive ability of the target plant species. We studied the performance of the...