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Shoot orientation affects vessel size, shoot hydraulic conductivity and shoot growth rate in Vitis vinifera L



Shoot orientation affects vessel size, shoot hydraulic conductivity and shoot growth rate in Vitis vinifera L



Plant cell and environment 22(2): 197-204



Vitis vinifera L. plants were grown in containers and each plant's single shoot was orientated upwards or downwards. Some plants were trained first upwards, then downwards, then again upwards (N-shaped plants). Vegetative growth was reduced in plants trained downwards compared to that in upward and N-shaped plants. Shoot growth rate slowed in downward shoot portions, but only after the apex had grown downwards for at least 10 internodes. Shoot hydraulic conductivity k(h), measured after elimination of xylem embolisms, was lower in downward than in upward plants. In N-shaped plants k(h) was higher in the upward-growing shoot portions, and lower in the central, downward-growing portion. Shoot- and leaf-specific conductivities were also lower in downward than in upward shoot portions. Xylem cross-sectional area and xylem structure (number of wedges, number of vessels per unit xylem area) deffered little in the three orientations. In contrast, vessel diameter and the sum of vessel cross-sectional areas were significantly smaller in downward than in upward shoot portions. These differences could explain the reduction in conductivity observed in the downward-orientated shoot portions. The measurements taken on N-shaped plants showed that the decreases in k(h) and in vessel size were a result of shoot orientation, not shoot bending.

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Accession: 003271632

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DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-3040.1999.00384.x



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