Trace element and major ion composition of wet and dry deposition in Ankara, Turkey
Kaya, G.; Tuncel, G.
Atmospheric Environment 31(23): 3985-3998
Daily, wet-only precipitation samples collected over a two year period were analyzed for SO-4-2-, NO-3-, Cl-, NH-4+, H+, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Al, Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn, V and Ni. Weekly dry-deposition samples Collected on petri-dishes over the same period were analyzed only for major ions. Concentrations of ions and elements in Ankara precipitation are comparable with concentrations reported in literature for other urban areas. However, the wet deposition fluxes are the lowest among literature values, owing to small annual precipitation in the region. Although, annual average pH in precipitation is 4.7, episodic rain events with fairly low pH's were observed. Approximately half of the acidity in Ankara precipitation is neutralized in the winter season, while the acidity is completely neutralized by airborne soil particles that are rich in CaCO-3 in the summer precipitation. The SO-4-2- and NO-3- contributes approximately equally on the free acidity in winter. Main forms of SO-4-2- and NO-3- in precipitation are CaSO-4 and Ca(NO-3)-2, respectively. Crustal elements and ions have higher concentrations during summer season, while anthropogenic ions and elements did not show well-defined seasonal cycles. The lack of industrial activity in Ankara has profound influence on the temporal behavior of elements and ions.