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A comparison of the onset of protection induced by Newcastle disease virus strain B1 and a fowl poxvirus recombinant Newcastle disease vaccine to a viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle disease virus challenge

A comparison of the onset of protection induced by Newcastle disease virus strain B1 and a fowl poxvirus recombinant Newcastle disease vaccine to a viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle disease virus challenge

Avian Diseases 43(4): 745-755

Four-week-old specific-pathogen-free white rock chickens were immunized with either a commercial recombinant fowl poxvirus-vectored Newcastle disease vaccine (FPN) expressing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion protein genes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain B1 or live NDV B1. Vaccinates and controls were challenged by eyedrop and intranasal (E/I) route with a viscerotropic velogenic NDV at 14 days postvaccination to determine the time of clearance of challenge virus. In a subsequent experiment, chickens were challenged at 3, 6, or 10 days postvaccination to determine the onset of immunity. Chickens that received a recommended field dose (1x) or a 0.01x dose of FP-N subcutaneously (s.c.) and were seropositive by hemagglutination-inhibition test at 14 days postvaccination cleared the challenge virus by 14 days postchallenge. Clinical Newcastle disease and high challenge virus titers in tissues were seen only in seronegative FP-N 0.01x dose vaccinates and controls. In a comparison of vaccination with FP-N (1x, 10(4,9) median tissue culture infective dose) s.c., B1 (10(6) median egg infective dose [EID50]) s.c., or B1 (10(6) EID50) E/I, chickens vaccinated at 6 or 10 days before challenge with all vaccines were protected against clinical disease, but only those vaccinated with B1 E/I 10 days before challenge were protected against infection with the challenge virus. Vaccination at 3 days before challenge with B1 E/I provided early protection, but severe nervous signs developed later and reduced overall protection to 60%, whereas disease in chickens vaccinated with B1 s.c. and FP-N s.c. 3 days before challenge was similar to the challenge controls.

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Accession: 003342102

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PMID: 10611990

DOI: 10.2307/1592743

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