Effect of chromium picolinate and chromium propionate on glucose and insulin kinetics of growing barrows and on growth and carcass traits of growing-finishing barrows
Matthews, J.O.; Southern, L.L.; Fernandez, J.M.; Pontif, J.E.; Bidner, T.D.; Odgaard, R.L.
Journal of Animal Science 79(8): 2172-2178
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary Cr tripicolinate (CrPic) or Cr propionate (CrProp) on growth, carcass traits, plasma metabolites, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity in pigs. In Exp. 1, 36 barrows (12 per treatment; initial and final BW were 20 and 38 kg) were allotted to the following treatments: 1) corn-soybean meal basal diet (control), 2) as 1 + 200 ppb Cr as CrPic, or 3) as 1 + 200 ppb Cr as CrProp. Growth performance data were collected for 28 d, and then 23 pigs (seven, eight, and eight pigs for treatments 1, 2, and 3, respectively) were fitted with jugular catheters and a glucose tolerance test (500 mg glucose/kg BW) and an insulin challenge test (0.1 IU of porcine insulin/kg BW) were conducted. Both CrPic and CrProp decreased (P < 0.05) ADG and ADFI but did not affect gain:feed (P > 0.10). Fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, urea N, insulin, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol:total cholesterol concentrations were not affected (P > 0.10) by either Cr source. Pigs fed CrPic had lower (P < 0.02) fasting plasma NEFA concentrations than control pigs, but plasma NEFA concentrations of pigs fed CrProp were not affected (P > 0.10). During the glucose tolerance test, glucose and insulin kinetics were not affected by treatment (P > 0.10). During the insulin challenge test, glucose clearance was increased (P < 0.01) in pigs fed CrProp but not affected (P > 0.10) in pigs fed CrPic. Glucose half-life was decreased (P < 0.03) in pigs fed CrPic or CrProp, but insulin kinetics were not affected (P > 0.10). In Exp. 2, 48 barrows (four replicates of four pigs per replicate; initial and final BW were 23 and 115 kg) were allotted to the same dietary treatments in a growing-finishing study. Average daily gain, ADFI, and gain:feed were not affected (P > 0.10) by treatments. Carcass length tended (P = 0.10) to be greater in pigs fed CrPic than in pigs fed CrProp, but other carcass measurements were not affected (P > 0.10). Glucose kinetics from the insulin challenge test indicate that both CrPic and CrProp increase insulin sensitivity and that both Cr sources are bioavailable.