+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Stillage characterization and anaerobic treatment of ethanol stillage from conventional and cellulosic feedstocks



Stillage characterization and anaerobic treatment of ethanol stillage from conventional and cellulosic feedstocks



Biomass & Bioenergy 19(2): 63-102



A technical evaluation of stillage characterization, treatment, and by-product recovery in the ethanol industry was performed through a review of the scientific literature, with particular emphasis on solutions pertinent to a cellulosic-based ethanol production system. This effort has generated substantial information supporting the viability of anaerobic digestion for stillage treatment followed by land application on biomass crops for nutrient recovery. Generally, the characteristics of stillage from cellulosic materials appear comparable to those of conventional sugar- and starch-based feedstocks. However, the data on cellulosic stillage characteristics and treatment parameters are extremely limited and highly variable. This has significant impacts on the capital costs and biogas recovery of anaerobic treatment systems predicted from these data. In addition, technical questions remain unanswered with regard to stillage toxicity from untested feedstocks and the impact of heavy metal leaching when acid hydrolysis reactors are fabricated from corrosion-resistant alloys. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of ethanol stillage achieves similar treatment efficiencies and methane yields compared to mesophilic treatment, but at almost twice the organic loading rate. Therefore, application of thermophilic anaerobic digestion would improve process economics, since smaller digesters and less stillage cooling are required. Downstream processes for stillage utilization and by-product recovery considered worthy of continued investigation include the production of feed (from single cell protein and/or algae production), color removal, and production of calcium magnesium acetate. This study finds that sustainable and economically viable solutions are available for mitigating the environmental impacts which result from large-scale biomass-to-ethanol conversion facilities. However, further research in some areas is needed to facilitate successful implementation of appropriate technology options.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 003567242

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

DOI: 10.1016/s0961-9534(00)00017-9


Related references

Anaerobic digestion of stillage from a pilot scale wood to ethanol process i. stillage characterization. Environmental Technology Letters 7(6): 325-334, 1986

Anaerobic digestion for treatment of stillage from cellulosic bioethanol production. Bioresource Technology 144: 387-395, 2014

Anaerobic digestion of stillage from a pilot scale woodtoethanol process I. Stillage characterisation. Environmental Technology Letters 7(1-12): 325-334, 1986

Grain sorghum stillage recycling: Effect on ethanol yield and stillage quality. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 27(12): 1735-1738, 1985

Stillage recycling: effect on ethanol yield, energy consumption, and stillage quality. Paper, American Society of Agricultural Engineers (83-3570): 11 pp, 1983

The potential of anaerobic biotechnology for treatment of stillage in the fuel ethanol industry. Energy from Biomass and Wastes XI: 1023-1040, 1988

Characterization of sweet potato stillage and recovery of stillage solubles by ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 36(2): 252-256, 1988

Techno-economic evaluation of stillage treatment with anaerobic digestion in a softwood-to-ethanol process. Biotechnology for Biofuels 3: 21, 2010

A whole stillage sieving process to recover fiber for cellulosic ethanol production. Industrial Crops and Products 92: 271-276, 2016

Efficiency of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of distillery stillage in the production of cellulosic ethanol. Bioresource Technology 268: 424-433, 2018

Anaerobic digestion of wood ethanol stillage using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 30(7): 896-908, 1987

Microwave-assisted pretreatment of maize distillery stillage with the use of dilute sulfuric acid in the production of cellulosic ethanol. Bioresource Technology 278: 318-328, 2019

Oxidative production of xylonic acid using xylose in distillation stillage of cellulosic ethanol fermentation broth by Gluconobacter oxydans. Bioresource Technology 224: 573-580, 2016

The use of biomass and stillage recycle in conventional ethanol fermentation. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology 67(4): 362-366, 1996

Study of the acidogenic phase of the anaerobic fermentation of stillage from ethanol distilleries. Biotechnology Letters 9(7): 517-522, 1987