Survey for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone and fumonisins in maize imported into the United Kingdom
Scudamore, K.A.; Patel, S.
Food Additives and Contaminants 17(5): 407-416
This survey examined 140 samples of raw maize as received at ports or at major maize mills in the UK and 12 after initial cleaning. Samples were examined for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, ochratoxin A, zearalenone and fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 using fully validated analytical HPLC methods with detection limits of 0.1 microgram/kg for each aflatoxin and ochratoxin A, 4 micrograms/kg for zearalenone and 10 micrograms/kg for each fumonisin. 95.0% and 92.1% of samples met the new EC statutory maximum permissible level for total aflatoxins and aflatoxin B1 respectively. The maximum concentration of ochratoxin A found was 1.5 micrograms/kg. Zearalenone and fumonisins were detected in almost every sample with 41.7% of maize containing more than 100 micrograms/kg of zearalenone and 48% of samples containing more than 1000 micrograms/kg total fumonisins. Initial cleaning of raw maize reduced aflatoxin concentrations by about 40% and total fumonisins by 32%.