Early angiosperms from the Lower Cretaceous of Jixi, eastern Heilongjiang, China

Sun, G.; Dilcher, D.L.

Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 121(2): 91-112


ISSN/ISBN: 0034-6667
DOI: 10.1016/s0034-6667(02)00083-0
Accession: 003720593

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Early angiosperms from the Lower Cretaceous Chengzihe Formation exposed near the city of Jixi in Northeast China are reported here. Ten taxa are presented in this paper including two new genera (Zhengia, Xingxuephyllum), three new species (Jixia chengzihensis, Zhengia chinensis, Xingxuephyllum jixiense), and three taxa are emended (Asiatifolium elegans, Jixia pinnatipartita, Shenkuoa caloneura). Also, descriptions of four species are included, Jixia sp., Xingxueina heilongjangensis, Reproductive A, and Reproductive B. Dating of the fossil angiosperms is based upon the Hauterivian age of dinoflagellates found in marine sediments conformably underlying the beds from which the angiosperms were found, and on the biostratigraphic correlation of the Chengzihe Formation to some relevant equivalents of the neighboring South Primorye, Russia that have alternating marine and non-marine beds. Of special interest is the diversity of angiosperms found, the small size of the leaves and the associated reproductive material probably attached to an angiosperm leaf. It consists of an elongate axis that bears small florets arranged helically, the surface of which is covered with abundant pollen similar to late Valanginian-Hauterivian inaperturate pollen of Afropollis from Israel. The angiosperms from the Chengzihe Formation of Jixi, China are considered Hauterivian or Hauterivian-early Barremian in age.