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Effect of different forms of dietary hydrogenated fats on LDL particle size

Effect of different forms of dietary hydrogenated fats on LDL particle size

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 78(3): 370-375

Background: Dietary trans fatty acids (FAs), which are formed during the process of hydrogenating vegetable oil, are known to increase plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations. However, their effect on LDL particle size has yet to be investigated. Objective: We investigated the effect of trans FA consumption on the electrophoretic characteristics of LDL particles. Design: Eighteen women and 18 men each consumed 5 experimental diets in random order for 35-d periods. Fat represented 30% of total energy intake in each diet, with two-thirds of the fat in the form of semiliquid margarine (0.6 g trans FAs/100 g fat), soft margarine (9.4 g trans FAs/100 g fat), shortening (13.6 g trans FAs/100 g fat), stick margarine (26.1 g trans FAs/100 g fat), or butter, which was low in trans FAs (2.6 g trans FAs/100 g fat) but rich in saturated fat. LDL particle size and distribution were characterized by nondenaturing, 2-16% polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. Results: Relative to the LDL particle size observed after consumption of the butter-enriched diet, LDL particle size decreased significantly and in a dose-dependent fashion with increasing amounts of dietary trans FAs (P < 0.001). Cholesterol concentrations in large (> 260 A) and medium-sized (255-260 A) LDL particles also increased proportionately to the amount of trans FAs in the diet. Conclusion: Consumption of dietary trans FAs is associated with a deleterious increase in small, dense LDL, which further reinforces the importance of promoting diets low in trans FAs to favorably affect the lipoprotein profile. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.

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Accession: 003727019

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PMID: 12936917

DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/78.3.370

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