Effect of irrigation regimes and nutrient management on soil water dynamics, evapo-transpiration and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) in Vertisol

Hati, K.M.; Mandal, K.G.; Misra, A.K.; Ghosh, P.K.; Acharya, C.L.

Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 71(9): 581-586


ISSN/ISBN: 0019-5022
Accession: 003730273

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An experiment was conducted with wheat (Triticum aestivum), grown on heavy clay soil (Vertisol) in Madhya Pradesh, India during the winter seasons of 1998-99 and 1999-2000, to determine the effects of various levels of irrigation and nutrients on soil water dynamics, evapotranspiration (ET), water use efficiency and grain yield. Fertilized plots retained less moisture in the soil profile at harvest than the unfertilized ones. Moisture extraction from the top 30 cm soil increased with the increase in irrigation level (from 33.6% in no irrigation to 50.2% in 3 irrigations). From deeper layers (60-120 cm), moisture extraction was higher in manured and fertilized plots (37%) than in plots where no nutrients were applied (24.5%). The ET throughout the growth stages was higher for irrigated (303.0 mm) than non-irrigated plots (148.7 mm). However, in non-irrigated plots, ET reached its peak earlier (between 75 and 90 days after sowing) compared with irrigated plots (between 90 and 105 days after sowing). At a particular irrigation level, ET was higher in fertilized and manured plots than unfertilized plots at all stages of growth. The grain yield increased significantly with the increase in irrigation level (89.2 and 103.7% with 3 irrigations over no irrigation in first and second year, respectively), and with the integrated application of fertilizer and farmyard manure (138.5 and 123.0% of the recommended rate of NPK+farmyard manure (10 tonnes/ha) over the control in first and second year, respectively). ET showed a linear relationship (R2=0.71) with grain yield. The water use efficiency was highest at no irrigation, followed by 2 and 3 irrigations treatments, whereas it was higher in fertilized and manured plots than that in unfertilized plots.