Evolutionary dynamics of a satellite DNA in the tiger beetle species pair Cicindela campestris and C. maroccana

Gallin, Jé.; Vogler, A.P.

Genome 46(2): 213-223


ISSN/ISBN: 0831-2796
PMID: 12723037
DOI: 10.1139/g02-126
Accession: 003762848

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Satellite repeat elements are an abundant component of eukaryotic genomes, but not enough is known about their evolutionary dynamics and their involvement in karyotype and species differentiation. We report the nucleotide sequence, chromosomal localization, and evolutionary dynamics of a repetitive DNA element of the tiger beetle species pair Cicindela maroccana and Cicindela campestris. The element was detected after restriction digest of C. maroccana total genomic DNA with EcoRI as a single band and its multimers on agarose gels. Cloning and sequencing of several isolates revealed a consensus sequence of 383 bp with no internal repeat structure and no detectable similarity to any entry in GenBank. Hybridization of the satellite unit to C. maroccana mitotic and meiotic chromosomes revealed the presence of this repetitive DNA in the centromeres of all chromosomes except the Y chromosome, which exhibited only a very weak signal in its short arm. PCR-based tests for this satellite in related species revealed its presence in the sister species C. campestris, but not in other closely related species. Phylogenetic analysis of PCR products revealed well-supported clades that generally separate copies from each species. Because both species exhibit the multiple X chromosome karyotypic system common to Cicindela, but differ in their X chromosome numbers (four in C. maroccana vs. three in C. campestris), structural differences could also be investigated with regard to the position of satellites in a newly arisen X chromosome. We find the satellite in a centromeric position in all X chromosomes of C. maroccana, suggesting that the origin of the additional X chromosome involves multiple karyotypic rearrangements.