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High-dose Borna disease virus infection induces a nucleoprotein-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response and prevention of immunopathology



High-dose Borna disease virus infection induces a nucleoprotein-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response and prevention of immunopathology



Journal of Virology 75(23): 11700



Experimental Borna disease virus (BDV) infection of rats and natural infection of horses and sheep leads to severe central nervous system disease based on immunopathological pathways. The virus replicates slowly, and the cellular immune response results in immunopathology. CD8(+) T cells exert effector cell functions, and their activity results in the destruction of virus-infected cells. Previously, Oldach and colleagues (D. Oldach, M. C. Zink, J. M. Pyper, S. Herzog, R. Rott, O. Narayan, and J. E. Clements, Virology 206:426-434, 1995) have reported protection against Borna disease after inoculation of high-dose cell-adapted BDV. Here we show that the outcome of the infection, i.e., immunopathology versus protection, is simply dependent on the amount of virus used for infection. High-dose BDV (10(6) FFU) triggers an early virus-specific reaction of the immune system, as demonstrated by strong cellular and humoral responses. In particular, the early presence and function of nucleoprotein-specific CD8(+) T cells could be demonstrated in the brain. We present evidence that in a noncytolytic and usually persistent virus infection, high-dose input virus mediates early control of the pathogen due to an efficient induction of an antiviral immune mechanism. From these data, we conclude that immune reactivity, in particular the cytotoxic T-cell response, determines whether the virus is controlled with prevention of the ensuing immunopathological disease or whether a persistent infection is established.

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Accession: 003795238

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 11689651

DOI: 10.1128/jvi.75.23.11700-11708.2001


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