Novel proteinaceous toxins from the nematocyst venom of the Okinawan sea anemone Phyllodiscus semoni Kwietniewski

Nagai, H.; Oshiro, N.; Takuwa-Kuroda, K.; Iwanaga, S.; Nozaki, M.; Nakajima, T.

Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 294(4): 760-763


ISSN/ISBN: 0006-291X
PMID: 12061771
DOI: 10.1016/s0006-291x(02)00547-8
Accession: 003864286

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The Okinawan sea anemone Phyllodiscus semoni is known to cause cases of severe stinging. We isolated P. semoni toxins 60A and 60B (PsTX-60A and PsTX-60B; ca. 60 kDa) as the major toxins from the isolated nematocysts of this species for the first time. PsTX-60A and PsTX-60B showed lethal toxicity to the shrimp Palaemon paucidence when administered via intraperitoneal injection (LD(50) values: 800-900 and 800 microg/kg, respectively) and hemolytic activity toward a 0.8% suspension of sheep red blood cells (ED(50) values: 600 and 300 ng/ml, respectively). Furthermore, we sequenced the cDNA encoding PsTX-60A. The deduced amino acid sequence of PsTX-60A did not show any similarity to previously reported proteins. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of PsTX-60B showed homology with that of PsTX-60A. These toxins represent a novel class of cytolytic proteinaceous toxins.