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PSII photochemistry, thermal energy dissipation, and the xanthophyll cycle in Kalanchoe daigremontiana exposed to a combination of water stress and high light



PSII photochemistry, thermal energy dissipation, and the xanthophyll cycle in Kalanchoe daigremontiana exposed to a combination of water stress and high light



Physiologia Plantarum 118(2): 173-182



Kalanchoe daigremontiana, a CAM plant grown in a greenhouse, was subjected to severe water stress. The changes in photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry were investigated in water-stressed leaves. To separate water stress effects from photoinhibition, water stress was imposed at low irradiance (daily peak PFD 150 mmol m-2 s-1). There were no significant changes in the maximal efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), the traditional fluorescence induction kinetics (OIP) and the polyphasic fluorescence induction kinetics (OJIP), suggesting that water stress had no direct effects on the primary PSII photochemistry in dark-adapted leaves. However, PSII photochemistry in light-adapted leaves was modified in water-stressed plants. This was shown by the decrease in the actual PSII efficiency (FPSII), the efficiency of excitation energy capture by open PSII centres (Fv'/Fm'), and photochemical quenching (qP), as well as a significant increase in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in particular at high PFDs. In addition, photoinhibition and the xanthophyll cycle were investigated in water-stressed leaves when exposed to 50% full sunlight and full sunlight. At midday, water stress induced a substantial decrease in Fv/Fm which was reversible. Such a decrease was greater at higher irradiance. Similar results were observed in FPSII, qP, and Fv'/Fm'. On the other hand, water stress induced a significant increase in NPQ and the level of zeaxanthin via the de-epoxidation of violaxanthin and their increases were greater at higher irradiance. The results suggest that water stress led to increased susceptibility to photoinhibition which was attributed to a photoprotective process but not to a photodamage process. Such a photoprotection was associated with the enhanced formation of zeaxanthin via de-epoxidation of violaxanthin. The results also suggest that thermal dissipation of excess energy associated with the xanthophyll cycle may be an important adaptive mechanism to help protect the photosynthetic apparatus from photoinhibitory damage for CAM plants normally growing in arid and semi-arid areas where they are subjected to a combination of water stress and high light. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.

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Accession: 003874617

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DOI: 10.1034/j.1399-3054.2003.00061.x


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