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Phylogenetic relationships among Heliconiinae genera based on morphology (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)


Phylogenetic relationships among Heliconiinae genera based on morphology (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)



Systematic Entomology 28(4): 451-479



ISSN/ISBN: 0307-6970

DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-3113.2003.00221.x

Phylogenetic relationships among Heliconiinae genera are proposed based on early-stage and adult morphology. Parsimony analyses of forty-nine species in twenty-nine genera indicate that Heliconiinae can be divided into four main groups: (1) Pardopsis, Acraea and Actinote; (2) Cethosia plus Neotropical genera; (3) Oriental genera and (4) fritillaries. Analyses of adult characters suggested that Oriental genera form a monophyletic group, whereas those of adult plus early-stage characters artificially split this group into three separate lineages. Our character set does not contain enough phylogenetic information to resolve relationships among fritillary genera with confidence, and further studies of this group are needed. The classification of the Heliconiinae is revised based on our results.

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Accession: 003882720

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