+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Porcine reproductive-respiratory syndrome virus infection predisposes pigs for respiratory signs upon exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide



Porcine reproductive-respiratory syndrome virus infection predisposes pigs for respiratory signs upon exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide



Veterinary microbiology 88(1): 1-12



This study examined whether an infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) potentiates respiratory signs upon exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Five-week-old conventional pigs were inoculated intratracheally with the Lelystad strain of PRRSV and received 5 days later one or two intratracheal LPS administrations. The necessary controls were included. After LPS administration, pigs were intensively monitored for clinical signs. Additionally, some pigs were euthanatized after a second LPS administration for broncho-alveolar cell analysis and virological examinations of the lungs. Broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) cells were counted and differentiated. Lung suspensions and BAL fluids were titrated for PRRSV. Exposure of pigs to PRRSV only resulted in a fever for time periods ranging from 1 to 5 days and slight respiratory signs. Exposure of pigs to LPS only resulted in general signs, characterized by fever and depression, but respiratory signs were slight or absent. PRRSV-LPS exposed pigs, on the other hand, developed severe respiratory signs upon LPS exposure, characterized by tachypnoea, abdominal breathing and dyspnoea. Besides respiratory signs, these pigs also showed enhanced general signs, such as fever and depression. Lung neutrophil infiltration was similar in non-infected and PRRSV-infected pigs upon LPS exposure. PRRSV quantities were similar in lungs and BAL fluids of pigs infected with PRRSV only and PRRSV-LPS exposed pigs. These data show a clear synergism between PRRSV and LPS in the induction of respiratory signs in conventional pigs. The synergism was observed in 87% of the pigs. So, it can be considered as reproducible and may be used to test the efficacy of preventive and therapeutic measures.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 003889284

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 12119134

DOI: 10.1016/s0378-1135(02)00104-9


Related references

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection increases CD14 expression and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein in the lungs of pigs. Viral Immunology 18(1): 116-126, 2005

Respiratory symptoms in meat pigs: is there a role for porcine respiratory corona virus (PRCV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in the etiology?. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 122(16): 434-436, 1997

Evaluation of the effects of animal age, concurrent bacterial infection, and pathogenicity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on virus concentration in pigs. American Journal of Veterinary Research 67(3): 489-493, 2006

Interaction between porcine reproductive-respiratory syndrome virus and bacterial endotoxin in the lungs of pigs: potentiation of cytokine production and respiratory disease. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 41(3): 960-966, 2003

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus modifies innate immunity and alters disease outcome in pigs subsequently infected with porcine respiratory coronavirus: implications for respiratory viral co-infections. Journal of General Virology 90(Pt 11): 2713-2723, 2009

Association between the genetic similarity of the open reading frame 5 sequence of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and the similarity in clinical signs of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in Ontario swine herds. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 78(4): 250-259, 2014

Prevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, porcine circovirus type 2 and porcine parvovirus from aborted fetuses and pigs with respiratory problems in Korea. Journal of Veterinary Science 2(3): 201-207, 2001

Dual infections of feeder pigs with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus following by porcine respiratory coronavirus or swine influenza virus: A clinical and virological study. Veterinary Microbiology 48(3-4): 325-335, 1996

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-induced immunosuppression exacerbates the inflammatory response to porcine respiratory coronavirus in pigs. Viral Immunology 23(5): 457-466, 2010

Application of PCR for detection of mixed infection with porcine circovirus II and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pigs. Chinese Journal of Animal Quarantine 22(3): 29, 2005

Nitric oxide is elicited and inhibits viral replication in pigs infected with porcine respiratory coronavirus but not porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 136(3-4): 335-339, 2010

Bottlenecks in the transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV1) to naïve pigs and the quasi-species variation of the virus during infection in vaccinated pigs. Veterinary Research 49(1): 107, 2018

Increased microbiome diversity at the time of infection is associated with improved growth rates of pigs after co-infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). Veterinary Microbiology 208: 203-211, 2017

Pathogenesis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection in gnotobiotic pigs. Veterinary Pathology 32(4): 361-373, 1995

Co-infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica in pigs. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology 99: 229, 1999