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Sublethal effects of ammoniacal fertilizer effluents on three commercial fish species from Niger Delta area, Nigeria



Sublethal effects of ammoniacal fertilizer effluents on three commercial fish species from Niger Delta area, Nigeria



Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management 5(1): 63-68



Sublethal effects of various concentrations of fertilizer effluents on the tail beat frequency per minute (TBF minute-1) and opercular beat frequency per minute (OBF minute-1) of Oreochromis niloticus, Clarias gariepinus and hybrid (Heterobranchus bidorsalis (female) x C. gariepinus (male)) were examined in a static 96-hour bioassay under laboratory conditions. Effluent concentration, ammonia (ionized and un-ionized), urea and pH significantly affected TBF and OBF of the three species.

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Accession: 003952368

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