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The effect of metal and alternative golf spikes on visual turf quality and playing characteristics of Festuca rubra/Agrostis capillaris/Poa annua putting surfaces



The effect of metal and alternative golf spikes on visual turf quality and playing characteristics of Festuca rubra/Agrostis capillaris/Poa annua putting surfaces



Journal of Turfgrass and Sports Surface Science 78: 46-58



The effects of different golf spikes on visual and playing quality of golf green turf were assessed using a range of alternative and metal spikes. Tests were undertaken on a putting surface comprised of Festuca rubra L., Agrostis capillaris L. and Poa annua L. grass species. Wear was applied at regular intervals over one year to simulate both the walking and putting actions of a golfer on a golf green.

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