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The occurrence and geographic distribution of Xiphinema and Xiphidorus species (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in Brazil



The occurrence and geographic distribution of Xiphinema and Xiphidorus species (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in Brazil



Helminthologia 40(1): 41-54



The occurrence and geographic distribution of Xiphinema and Xiphidorus species were investigated during a national survey of 16 Brazilian States between 1999 and 2001. Eighty-two soil samples were collected from different habitats, including crop plants, grassland, savanna (cerrado) and typical Amazonian forest vegetation. Fourteen Xiphinema species (X. brasiliense, X. brevicolle, X. elongatum, X. ensiculiferum, X. ifacolum, X. krugi, X. longicaudatum, X. paritaliae, X. setariae/vulgare complex, X. surinamense, X. variegatum, and three morphotypes of X. americanum sensu lato identified as representing X. diffusum, X. oxycaudatum and X. peruvianum) were recorded. Also, Xiphidorus balcarceanus, X. minor, X. yepesara parthenus and X. yepesara yepesara were identified from three States, however recognition of X. yepesara parthenus as a subspecies of X. yepesara requires confirmation. The most frequently occurring species were X. krugi (46% of all samples), X. brasiliense (22%) and X. setariae/vulgare complex (22%). Xiphinema diffusum, X. longicaudatum, X. oxycaudatum, X. peruvianum and Xiphidorus balcarceanus constitute new records for Brazil. A principal component analysis identified odontostyle and odontophore length and to a lesser extent vulva position as the main influencing morphological characters that could be used to separate the Xiphinema and Xiphidorus species recorded in this study. A dichotomous key for the identification of Xiphinema species reported in Brazil is presented.

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