Alkaline-carbonate noodles from hard winter wheat flours varying in protein, swelling power, and polyphenol oxidase activity
Zhao, L.; Seib, P.
Cereal Chemistry 82(5): 504-516
ISSN/ISBN: 0009-0352 DOI: 10.1094/cc-82-0504
The effects of wheat protein and starch on yellow-alkaline noodles have not been fully clarified. Twenty-four hard winter wheats with varying protein, hot-water swelling power (SP95), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were milled into long-patent and short-patent flours. Protein, SP95, and PPO activity in the 48 flours were 8.2-12.9%, 16.2-24.1 g/g, and 80-157 deltaA480/mg of protein/min, respectively. Lightness of raw noodles declined with increasing protein and PPO levels but yellowness decreased and then increased. Tensile force to break the cooked noodles was positively correlated with SP95 and protein. Compression (50%) force of noodles made from flour with high SP95 approximately equal to 21 g/g, averaged approximately equal to 20% below those made from low SP95 approximately equal to 17 g/g of flour. Compression force was measured in the long dimension of a single noodle strand using a rectangular probe. The instrumental measurements suggest that alkaline noodles made from a single-null partial-waxy wheat with medium SP95 approximately equal to 19.9 g/g will have a tender bite and a cohesive texture compared with those from a low SP95 wheat with a hard bite and fracturable texture. Furthermore, alkaline noodles from a double-null partial-waxy wheat with high SP95 will have an extra soft bite unless flour protein is above approximately equal to 12.5%. Hard-white, dual-purpose wheat should have a low level of PPO and, depending on the preferred noodle-eating texture, a low to medium SP95 level. Such wheats with medium protein levels (11-12%) are well suited for alkaline noodles because of improved color and surface smoothness, whereas the same wheats with 12-13% protein are well suited for bread. Wheats with medium SP95 also reduce cooking loss and increase cooked yield.