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Artificial larviposition sites for field collections of the puparia of tsetse flies Glossina pallidipes and G. m. morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae)



Artificial larviposition sites for field collections of the puparia of tsetse flies Glossina pallidipes and G. m. morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae)



Bulletin of Entomological Research 95(3): 221-229



Tsetse flies Glossina pallidipes Austen and G. morsitans morsitans Westwood deposit their larvae in warthog burrows, in August-November, at Rekomitjie Research Station, Zambezi Valley, Zimbabwe. Artificial burrows, made from 200-l steel drums, were used to sample these flies and to collect their puparia. Sand-filled plastic trays in the burrows served as a substrate for larval deposition. The sand was covered with c. 2 cm of leaf litter after it was shown that only 3% of larvae were deposited on bare sand if both substrates were available. Other burrow modifications - artificially shading the burrow entrance, increasing the relative humidity inside the burrow, or reducing the size of the burrow entrance - significantly decreased deposition rates. The use of burrows in the hot season results in a reduction in the temperature experienced by the puparium towards an assumed optimum level of 26 degrees C. Artificial burrows maintained a mean temperature of 28.5 degrees C during October-November 1998, c. 2.5 degrees C cooler than ambient; earlier work has shown that natural burrows can be c. 5 degrees C cooler than ambient at these times. This may explain why natural burrows in full sunlight were used for larviposition, whereas artificial burrows were used only when they were in deep shade, and why significantly higher proportions of G. pallidipes were found in natural (66%) than in artificial burrows (34%). Better-insulated artificial burrows might produce more puparia with higher proportions of G. pallidipes. Burrows become waterlogged during the rains and may be too cool for optimum puparial development during the rest of the year. The percentages of G. m. morsitans in catches of females from artificial burrows, refuges and odour-baited traps were 34, 26 and < 10% respectively. Traps are biased in favour of G. pallidipes; artificial burrows may show a bias in favour of G. m. morsitans that is a function of temperature. Artificial warthog burrows provide a convenient way of studying the puparial stage in tsetse and for the first time facilitate the capture of females as they deposit their larvae.

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Accession: 004047705

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 15960876

DOI: 10.1079/ber2004354



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