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Assessment of the efficacy of a single dose of a recombinant vaccine against West Nile virus in response to natural challenge with West Nile virus-infected mosquitoes in horses


Assessment of the efficacy of a single dose of a recombinant vaccine against West Nile virus in response to natural challenge with West Nile virus-infected mosquitoes in horses



American Journal of Veterinary Research 65(11): 1459-1462



ISSN/ISBN: 0002-9645

PMID: 15566080

DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.2004.65.1459

Objective - To determine the onset of immunity after IM administration of a single dose of a recombinant canarypox virus vaccine against West Nile virus (WNV) in horses in a blind challenge trial. Animals - 20 mixed-breed horses. Procedure - Horses with no prior exposure to WNV were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (10 horses/group). In 1 group, a recombinant canarypox virus vaccine against WNV was administered to each horse once (day 0). The other 10 control horses were untreated. On day 26, 9 treated and 10 control horses were challenged via the bites of mosquitoes (Aedes albopictus) infected with WNV. Clinical responses and WNV isolation were monitored for 14 days after challenge exposure; antibody responses against WNV after administration of the vaccine and challenge were also assessed in both groups. Results - Following challenge via WNV-infected mosquitoes, 1 of 9 treated horses developed viraemia. In contrast, 8 of 10 control horses developed viraemia after challenge exposure to WNV-infected mosquitoes. All horses seroconverted after WNV challenge; compared with control horses, antibody responses in the horses that received the vaccine were detected earlier. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - In horses, a single dose of the recombinant canarypox virus-WNV vaccine appears to provide early protection against development of viraemia after challenge with WNV-infected mosquitoes, even in the absence of measurable antibody titers in some horses. This vaccine may provide veterinarians with an important tool in controlling WNV infection during a natural outbreak or under conditions in which a rapid onset of protection is required.

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Accession: 004049659

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