Chimeric live, attenuated vaccine against Japanese encephalitis (ChimeriVax-JE) : phase 2 clinical trials for safety and immunogenicity, effect of vaccine dose and schedule, and memory response to challenge with inactivated Japanese encephalitis antigen
Monath, T.P.; Guirakhoo, F.; Nichols, R.; Yoksan, S.; Schrader, R.; Murphy, C.; Blum, P.; Woodward, S.; McCarthy, K.; Mathis, D.; Johnson, C.; Bedford, P.
Journal of Infectious Diseases 188(8): 1213-1230
ChimeriVax-JE is a live, attenuated vaccine against Japanese encephalitis, using yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine as a vector. In a double-blind phase 2 trial, 99 adults received vaccine, placebo, or YF 17D vaccine (YF-VAX). ChimeriVax-JE was well tolerated, with no differences in adverse events between treatment groups. Viremias resulting from administration of ChimeriVax-JE and YF-VAX were of short duration and low titer; 82 (94%) of 87 subjects administered graded doses (1.8-5.8 log(10)) of ChimeriVax-JE developed neutralizing antibodies. A second dose, administered 30 days later, had no booster effect. Previous inoculation with YF did not interfere with ChimeriVax-JE, but there was a suggestion (not statistically significant) that ChimeriVax-JE interfered with YF-VAX administered 30 days later. A separate study explored immunological memory both in subjects who had received ChimeriVax-JE 9 months before and in ChimeriVax-JE-naive subjects challenged with inactivated mouse-brain vaccine (JE-VAX). Anamnestic responses were observed in preimmune individuals. ChimeriVax-JE appears to be a safe vaccine that provides protective levels of neutralizing antibody after a single dose.