+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Combined effects of process parameters and composition on foaming of dairy emulsions at low temperature in an agitated column



Combined effects of process parameters and composition on foaming of dairy emulsions at low temperature in an agitated column



Journal of food engineering 68(3): 335-347



The pre-aeration of dairy emulsions of composition similar to an ice cream mix was investigated under steady state conditions using a narrow annular gap unit equipped with a cross-blade impeller which occupies 7% the volume of the column. The combined influence of composition of mix and process parameters on unfrozen aerated emulsions was studied using two milk protein sources (skim milk and whey respectively), two commercial grade fats (differing by the amount of solid fat) and two types of commercial emulsifier blends (saturated and unsaturated mono- and di-glycerides). Foams were characterised in terms of overrun, bubble size distribution, rheological properties and fat destabilisation. Experimental results showed that stabilised unfrozen foams could be produced at a temperature higher than the freezing point, with an air cell size similar to that observed at the exit of a continuous ice cream freezer. Smaller bubbles were obtained with unsaturated emulsifiers and the highest level of stability was achieved with unsaturated emulsifiers combined with commercial fats characterised by the lowest solid fat content. A simple analysis based on dimensionless Weber and Reynolds numbers was developed to correlate the mean bubble diameter to process parameters and emulsion properties. Results differed widely as a function of emulsifiers.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 004078417

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

DOI: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2004.06.008


Related references

Effect of pH of food emulsions on their continuous foaming using a mechanically agitated column. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 7(3): 203-210, 2006

Combined effects of mobile phase composition and temperature on the retention of phenolic antioxidants on an octylsilica polydentate column. Journal of Chromatography. A 1317: 49-58, 2014

Combined effects of mobile phase composition and temperature on the retention of homologous and polar test compounds on polydentate C8 column. Journal of Chromatography. A 1217(39): 6052-6060, 2010

Microfluidization of model dairy emulsions. II. Influence of composition and process factors on the protein surface concentration. Lait 76(6): 551-570, 1996

"Vitamin E" fortified parenteral lipid emulsions: Plackett-Burman screening of primary process and composition parameters. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 39(2): 363-373, 2013

Effect of foaming temperature and varying time/temperature-conditions of pre-heating on the foaming properties of skimmed milk. International Dairy Journal 18(4): 349-358, 2008

Effects of processing conditions on structural and functional parameters of whipped dairy emulsions containing various fatty acid compositions. Journal of Dairy Science 92(8): 3566-3574, 2009

Process for modifying a dairy media for use as a foaming agent. United States Patent: (US 4 450 182), 1984

Temperature-induced morphology control in the polymer-foaming process. AIChE journal 53(10): 2651-2658, 2007

Use of Time Temperature integrators for determining process uniformity in agitated vessels. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies 9(3): 0-395, 2008

Effects of elevated temperature and mobile phase composition on a novel C18 silica column. Journal of Separation Science 30(8): 1141-1149, 2007

Effects of Temperature and Other Operational Parameters on Chlorella vulgaris Mass Cultivation in a Simple and Low-Cost Column Photobioreactor. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 177(2): 389-406, 2016

Effects of High Pressure–Low Temperature treatment on freezing behavior, sensorial properties and air cell distribution in sugar rich dairy based frozen food foam and emulsions. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies 13(none): 0-85, 2012

Effects of High Pressure – Low Temperature treatment on freezing behaviour, sensorial properties and air cell distribution in sugar rich dairy based frozen food foam and emulsions. 2011

Measurement of foaming of frying oil and effect of the composition of TG on foaming. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 80(5): 471-474, 2003