+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Combined effects of selected Penicillium mycotoxins on in vitro proliferation of porcine lymphocytes



Combined effects of selected Penicillium mycotoxins on in vitro proliferation of porcine lymphocytes



Mycopathologia 158(4): 441-450



The in vitro effect of combinations of the Penicillium mycotoxins citrinin (CIT), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), ochratoxin A (OTA), patulin (PAT), penicillic acid (PIA) and roquefortine C (RQC) on mitogen induced lymphocyte proliferation was determined using purified lymphocytes from six piglets. Dose-response curves for each mycotoxin and mycotoxin combinations were generated. The combined effects of toxin pairs based on IC20 were illustrated in isobole diagrams and statistically calculated. OTA and CIT elicited a synergistic effect. Four toxin pairs elicited additive effects, four pairs less-than-additive effects and six pairs independent effects. Thus, the majority of toxin pairs tested produced lower combined effects than an additive effect. The results indicate that the sum effect of all toxins is less than that from the summation of concentrations of the individual compounds, adjusted for differences in potencies.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 004078419

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 15630553

DOI: 10.1007/s11046-004-2843-z


Related references

The effects of the Penicillium mycotoxins citrinin, cyclopiazonic acid, ochratoxin A, patulin, penicillic acid, and roquefortine C on in vitro proliferation of porcine lymphocytes. Mycopathologia 158(3): 317-324, 2005

Effects of Penicillium mycotoxins citrinin, ochratoxin a, and patulin on in vitro proliferation of bovine lymphocytes. Bulletin Of The Veterinary Institute In Puawy: 1, 163-167, 2008

In vitro investigation of individual and combined cytotoxic effects of aflatoxin B1 and other selected mycotoxins on the cell line porcine kidney 15. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology 65(7-8): 1149-1157, 2014

Comparative aspects of in vitro proliferation of human and porcine lymphocytes exposed to mycotoxins. Archives of Animal Nutrition 64(5): 383-393, 2010

In vitro investigation of individual and combined cytotoxic effects of ochratoxin A and other selected mycotoxins on renal cells. Toxicology in Vitro 20(3): 332-341, 2005

Immune effects of four Fusarium-toxins (FB1, ZEA, NIV, DON) on the proliferation of Jurkat cells and porcine lymphocytes: in vitro study. Veterinary Research Communications 32 Suppl 1: S311-S313, 2008

Combined effects of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone on oxidative injury and apoptosis in porcine splenic lymphocytes in vitro. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology 69(8): 612-617, 2017

Mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites produced in vitro by Penicillium paneum Frisvad and Penicillium roqueforti Thom isolated from baled grass silage in Ireland. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54(24): 9268-9276, 2006

Effects of four trichothecene mycotoxins on activation marker expression and cell proliferation of human lymphocytes in culture. Cell Biology and Toxicology 15(4): 203-215, 2000

Methodical aspects of in vitro proliferation of porcine blood lymphocytes when exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON). Landbauforschung Volkenrode 56(3/4): 139-148, 2006

Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and apoptosis induced by ochratoxin A and citrinin in porcine kidney PK15 cells: Effects of single and combined mycotoxins. Toxicology Letters 172(supp-S), 2007

Influence of carvacrol on proliferation and survival of porcine lymphocytes and intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Toxicology in Vitro 22(3): 652-658, 2008

Individual and combined effects of vanillin and potassium sorbate on Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium glabrum, and Penicillium italicum growth. Journal of Food Protection 62(5): 540-542, 1999

Penicillium caseicolum, Penicillium camemberti and Penicillium roqueforti and their harmlessness to human health. i. physicochemical tests for the formation of known mycotoxins. Milchwissenschaft 32 (9) 517-520, 1977

In silico and in vitro prediction of the toxicological effects of individual and combined mycotoxins. Food and Chemical Toxicology 122: 194-202, 2018