Effect of high-selenium wheat on visceral organ mass, and intestinal cellularity and vascularity in finishing beef steers
Soto-Navarro, S.A.; Lawler, T.L.; Taylor, J.B.; Reynolds, L.P.; Reed, J.J.; Finley, J.W.; Caton, J.S.
Journal of Animal Science 82(6): 1788-1793
ISSN/ISBN: 0021-8812 PMID: 15217007 DOI: 10.2527/2004.8261788x
Twelve crossbred steers (351 +/- 24 kg initial BW) were used to determine effects of high-Se wheat on visceral tissue mass, intestinal cell growth, and intestinal cellularity and vascularity. Steers were allotted randomly by BW to one of two treatments consisting of 75% concentrate diets that supplied 1) adequate Se concentration (7 to 12 microgram.kg.BW(-1).d(-1)) or 2) high-Se concentration (60 to 70 microgram.kg.BW(-1).d(-1)). Diets were similar in composition, including 25% grass hay, 25% wheat, 39% corn, 5% desugared molasses, and 6% wheat middlings supplement on a DM basis. In the Se treatment, high-Se wheat (10 ppm Se, DM basis) was replaced with low-Se wheat (0.35 ppm Se, DM basis). Diets were formulated to be similar in CP and energy (14.0% CP, 2.12 Mcal of NE(m)/kg, and 1.26 Mcal NE(g)/kg of DM) and were offered daily (1500) to individual steers in an electronic feeding system. Diets were fed at 2.38% BW. After 126 d, steers were slaughtered, and individual visceral tissue weights determined. Concentrations of DNA, RNA, and protein of duodenum, ileum, and total small intestine were not affected (P greater than or equal to 0.33) by treatment. Similarly, RNA:DNA and protein:DNA ratios in duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and whole small intestine were not (P greater than or equal to 0.33) affected by feeding high-Se wheat. Conversely, jejunal weight was greater (P < 0.002) in steers fed high-Se wheat than in controls (916 vs. 1,427 +/- 84 g). Jejunal DNA was increased (P < 0.04) in steers fed high-Se wheat (2.95 vs. 3.56 +/- 0.19 mg/g), suggesting increased cell number. Concentrations of jejunal RNA and protein were not altered by treatment; however, because the jejunal weight increased in high-Se steers, DNA, RNA, and protein contents (grams) were greater than in control steers (P < 0.05). Vascularity of jejunal tissue decreased (P < 0.10) with high-Se wheat; however, because jejunal mass was greater for the high-Se wheat treatment, total microvascular volume was not affected by treatment. Percentage of jejunal crypt cell proliferation was not affected (P = 0.48) by treatment; however, total number of cells proliferating within the jejunum was increased in steers fed high-Se wheat. Data indicate that the lower jejunal vascularity in the diet high in Se (provided from wheat) may have resulted in increased jejunal mass to meet physiological nutrient demand. Therefore, negative effects of Se level used in this study on productive performance of feedlot steers are not expected.