+ Site Statistics
References:
52,654,530
Abstracts:
29,560,856
PMIDs:
28,072,755
+ Search Articles
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ PDF Full Text
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Relative efficiency of biological transmission of Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) by Dermacentor andersoni (Acari: Ixodidae) compared with mechanical transmission by Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae)



Relative efficiency of biological transmission of Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) by Dermacentor andersoni (Acari: Ixodidae) compared with mechanical transmission by Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae)



Journal of Medical Entomology 42(4): 668-675



Anaplasma marginale Theiler is a tick-borne intraerythrocytic rickettsial pathogen of cattle that also can be mechanically transmitted by biting flies. Rickettsemia during the acute phase of infection may reach as high as 10(9) infected erythrocytes (IEs) per milliliter of blood. Animals that survive acute infection develop a life-long persistent infection that cycles between 10(2.5) and 10(7) IE/ ml of blood. We compared stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) -borne mechanical transmission during acute infection with Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni Stiles-borne biological transmission in the persistent phase of infection to demonstrate quantitatively that biological transmission by ticks is considerably more efficient than mechanical transmission by biting flies. Stable flies that partially fed on an acutely infected calf and were immediately transferred to susceptible calves to complete their bloodmeals failed to transmit A. marginale. Ticks that fed on the original acquisition host after it reached the persistent phase of infection (>300-fold lower rickettsemia) successfully transmitted A. marginale after transfer to the same calves that failed to acquire infection after fly feeding. Failure of fly-borne mechanical transmission at a rickettsemia >300-fold higher than that from which ticks transmit with 100% efficiency demonstrates that tick-borne biological transmission is at least 2 orders of magnitude more efficient than direct stable fly-borne mechanical transmission.

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 004298927

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 16119558

DOI: 10.1603/0022-2585(2005)042[0668:REOBTO]2.0.CO;2


Related references

Comparison of the efficiency of biological transmission of Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) by Dermacentor andersoni Stiles (Acari: Ixodidae) with mechanical transmission by the horse fly, Tabanus fuscicostatus Hine (Diptera: Muscidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 45(1): 109-114, 2008

Detection of Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) in hemolymph of Dermacentor andersoni (Acari: Ixodidae) with the polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Medical Entomology 30(4): 781-788, 1993

Variation among geographically separated populations of Dermacentor andersoni (Acari: Ixodidae) in midgut susceptibility to Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae). Journal of Medical Entomology 42(2): 153-162, 2005

Persistence of Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) in male Dermacentor andersoni (Acari: Ixodidae) transferred successively from infected to susceptible calves. Journal of Medical Entomology 29(4): 657-668, 1992

Detection of Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) in secretagogue-induced oral secretions of Dermacentor andersoni (Acari: Ixodidae) with the polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Medical Entomology 30(4): 789-794, 1993

A Canadian bison isolate of Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) is not transmissible by Dermacentor andersoni (Acari: Ixodidae), whereas ticks from two Canadian D. andersoni populations are competent vectors of a U.S. strain. Journal of Medical Entomology 43(5): 971-975, 2006

Comparison of the efficiency of biological transmission of Anaplasma marginale by Dermacentor andersoni Stiles with mechanical transmission by the horse fly, Tabanus fuscicostatus Hine. Journal Of Medical Entomology: 1, 109-114, 2008

Conservation of transmission phenotype of Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales : Anaplasmataceae) strains among dennacentor and Rhipicephalus ticks (Acari : Ixodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 44(3): 484-491, 2007

Dermacentor hunteri (Acari: Ixodidae): an experimental vector of Anaplasma marginale and A. ovis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) to calves and sheep. Journal of Medical Entomology 36(3): 321-324, 1999

Development of Anaplasma ovis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) in male Dermacentor andersoni (Acari: Ixodidae) transferred from infected to susceptible sheep. Journal of Medical Entomology 29(1): 98-107, 1992

Capillary tube feeding system for studying tick-pathogen interactions of Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae) and Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae). Journal of Medical Entomology 42(5): 864-874, 2005

Developmental studies of Anaplasma marginale (Richettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) in male Dermacentor andersoni (Acari: Ixodidae) infected as adults by using nonradioactive in situ hybridization and microscopy. Journal of medical entomology 33(6): 911-920, 1996