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In vitro effects of Muscodor albus and three volatile components on growth of selected postharvest microorganisms

Ramin, A.; Braun, P.; Prange, R.; Delong, J.

HortScience 40(7): 2109-2114

2005


ISSN/ISBN: 0018-5345
Accession: 004441014

Biofumigation by volatiles of Muscodor albus Worapong, Strobel & W.M. Hess, an endophytic fungus, was investigated for the biological control of three postharvest fungi, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Penicillium expansum Link, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) de Bary, and three bacteria, Erwinia carotovora pv. carotovora (Jones) Bergey et al., Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula (isolate A7B), and Escherichia coli (strain K12). Bacteria and fungi on artificial media in petri dishes were exposed to volatiles produced by M. albus mycelium growing on rye seeds in sealed glass 4-L jars with or without air circulation for up to 48 hours. The amount of dry M. albus-rye seed culture varied from 0.25 to 1.25 g.L(-1) of jar volume. Fan circulation of volatiles in jars increased efficacy and 0.25 g.L(-1) with fan circulation was sufficient to kill or suppress all fungi and bacteria after 24 and 48 hours, respectively. Two major volatiles of M. albus, isobutyric acid (IBA) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (MB), and one minor one, ethyl butyrate (EB), varied in their control of the same postharvest fungi and bacteria. Among the three fungi, IBA killed or suppressed S. sclerotiorum, B. cinerea, and P. expansum at 40, 25, and 45 microliter.L(-1), respectively. MB killed or suppressed S. sclerotiorum, B. cinerea, and P. expansum at 75, 100, and 100 microliter.L(-1), respectively. EB was only able to kill S. sclerotiorum at 100 microliter.L(-1). Among the three bacteria, IBA killed or suppressed E. coli (K12), E. carotovora pv. carotovora, and P. fluorescens at 5, 12.5, and 12.5 microliter.L(-1), respectively. MB killed or suppressed E. coli (K12), E. carotovora pv. carotovora, and P. fluorescens at 100, 75, and 100 microliter.L(-1), respectively. EB did not control growth of the three bacteria. This study demonstrates the need for air circulation in M. albus, MB, and IBA treatments to optimize the efficacy of these potential postharvest agents of disease control.

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