Section 5
Chapter 4,444

Inhibition of nitric oxide production by macrophages in chromoblastomycosis: a role for Fonsecaea pedrosoi melanin

Bocca, A.L.; Brito, P.íc.P.M.S.; Figueiredo, F.ên.; Tosta, C.E.

Mycopathologia 161(4): 195-203


ISSN/ISBN: 0301-486X
PMID: 16552481
DOI: 10.1007/s11046-005-0228-6
Accession: 004443420

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Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic and progressive deep mycosis that is usually found in tropical and subtropical areas. Fonsecaea pedrosoi is considered its most frequent etiologic agent and causes a typical granulomatous inflammatory response, whose degree reflects the immune status of the host. Since macrophages play a fundamental role in the control of the infection, this study aimed at investigating the production of oxygen reactive specimens, the phagocytic capacity and the production of nitric oxide (NO) by macrophages employing in vitro assays and an in vivo model of chromoblastomycosis. Our results demonstrated that, during the infection, peritoneal macrophages show an increased phagocytic capacity and H2O2 production, but also a reduced ability to produce NO. Moreover, F. pedrosoi stimulated H2O2 production in vitro but not the synthesis of NO. The incubation of IFNgamma and LPS-stimulated macrophages with melanin, obtained from the fungus, inhibited NO production. Examination of the liver and spleen of infected animals, at day 30 or 60 following inoculation, showed a progressive increase in the number and size of granulomas, indicating that macrophages are properly mobilized and activated. Our data suggest that the inability of the host to clear F. pedrosoi, leading to a chronic disease, is due, at least in part, to the inhibition of NO synthesis by macrophages by fungus-produced melanin.

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