Methane, nitrous oxide and ammonia emissions during storage and after application of dairy cattle slurry and influence of slurry treatment
Amon, B.K.yvoruchko, V.A.on, T.Z.chmeister-Boltenstern, S.
Agriculture ecosystems and environment 112(2-3): 153-162
ISSN/ISBN: 0167-8809 DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2005.08.030
Slurries are a significant source of CH4, NH3 and N2O emissions to the atmosphere. The research project aimed at quantifying CH4, NH3 and N2O emissions from liquid manure stores and after manure application under field conditions. The influence of the manure treatment options "no treatment", "slurry separation", "anaerobic digestion", "slurry aeration" and "straw cover" on the emission level was investigated. Approximately 10 m3 of differently treated slurry were stored in pilot scale slurry tanks. Emissions were followed for c. 80 days. After the storage period, slurries were applied to permanent grassland. Greenhouse gas emissions from slurry were mainly caused by methane emissions during storage and by nitrous oxide emissions after field application of manures. Mitigation of GHG emissions can be achieved by a reduction in slurry dry matter and easily degradable organic matter content. Ammonia emissions mainly occurred after field application. Untreated slurry emitted 226.8 g NH3 m(-3) and 92.4 kg CO2 eq. m(-3) (storage and field application). Slurry separation (liquid fraction and composting of the solid fraction) resulted in NH3 losses of 402.9 g m(-3) and GHG losses of 58.5 kg CO2 eq. m(-3). Anaerobic digestion was a very effective means to reduce GHG emissions. 37.9 kg CO2 eq. m(-3) were lost. NH3 emissions were similar to those from untreated slurry. Covering the slurry store with a layer of chopped straw instead of a wooden cover increased NH3 emissions to 320.4 g m(-3) and GHG emissions to 119.7 kg CO2 eq. m(-3). Slurry aeration nearly doubled NH3 emissions compared to untreated slurry. GHG emissions were reduced to 53.3 kg CO2 eq. m(-3).