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Monocotyledons and gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands

Monocotyledons and gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands

Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 415 pp.

DOI: 10.2307/23493261

The present treatment constitutes an updated revision for the monocotyledon and gymnosperm flora (excluding Orchidaceae and Poaceae) for the biogeographical region of Puerto Rico (including all islets and islands) and the Virgin Islands. With this contribution, we fill the last major gap in the flora of this region, since the dicotyledons have been previously revised. This volume recognizes 33 families, I 18 genera, and 349 species of Monocots (excluding the Orchidaceae and Poaceae) and three families, three genera, and six species of gymnosperms. The Poaceae with an estimated 89 genera and 265 species, will be published in a separate volume at a later date. When Ackerman's (1995) treatment of orchids (65 genera and 145 species) and the Poaceae are added to our account of monocots, the new total rises to 35 families, 272 genera and 759 species. The differences in number from Britton's and Wilson's (1926) treatment is attributed to changes in families, generic and species concepts, recent introductions, naturalization of introduced species and cultivars, exclusion of cultivated plants, misdeterminations, and discoveries of new taxa or new distributional records during the last seven decades. Seven new taxa are described: Agave minor Proctor, Bulbostylis capillaris subsp. insulana M.T. Strong, Cyperus pulguerensis M.T. Strong, Guzmania lingulata var. concolor Proctor & Cedeno-Mald., Pitcairnia angustifolia var. simplicior Proctor & Cedeno-Mald., Pitcairnia jareckii Proctor & Cedeno-Mald., and Zephyranthes proctorii Acev.-Rodr. & M.T. Strong; and two new combinations are made: Cyperus subtenuis (Kuk.) M.T. Strong and Rhynchospora divaricata (Ham.) M.T. Strong. Twenty one of the accepted names (or their basionyms) in this work are lectotypified: Aechmea lingulata (L.) Baker, Aechmea nudicaulis (L.) Griseb., Alocasia plumbea Van Houtte, Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (Lemoine ex Morren) N.E. Brown, Cyperus confertus Sw., Cyperus subtenuis (Kuk.) M.T. Strong, Cyperus urbanii Boeck., Eleocharis rostellata (Torr.) Torn, Guzmania monostachia (L.) Mez, Heteranthera limosa (Sw.) Willd., Heteranthera reniformis Ruiz & Pav., Hohenbergia antillana Mez., Neomarica northiana (Schneev.) Sprague, Rajania cordata L., Rhynchospora ciliata (G. Mey.) Kuk., Rhynchospora odorata C. Wright ex Griseb., Spathiphyllum wallisii Regel, Tillandsia fasciculata Sw., Tillandsia polystachya (L.)L., and Xanthosoma helleborifolium (Jacq.) Schott. Four names are neotypified: Caladium bicolor (Aiton) Vent., Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill.) Urb., Smilax coriacea Spreng., and Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. One name is epitypified: Anthurium scandens (Aubl.) Engl. Fifteen synonyms of accepted taxa are lectotypified: Amaryllis equestris Aiton, Bulbostylis curassavica var. pallescens Kuk & Ekman ex Urb., Bulbostylis ekmanii Kuk., Bulbostylis papillosa Kuk, Crinum amabile Donn ex Ker-Gawl, Cyperus ehrenbergii Knuth, Cyperus filiformis var. densiceps Kuk., Eleocharis sintenisii Boeck., Pistia occidentalis Blume, Pitcairnia ramosa J. Jacq., Psilocarya rufa Nees, Rhynchospora longispicata Boeck., Scleria microcarpa var. subeciliata C.B.Clarke, Seleria grisebachii C.B. Clarke, and Xanthosoma atrovirens K. Koch & Bouche. Thirty-two of the taxa treated are newly reported for the flora area: Aechmea fasciata (Lindl.) Baker, Agave vivipara L., Bulbostylis stenocarpa Kuk., Calathea crotalifera S. Watson, Carex longii Mack., Commelina rufipes var. glabrata (D.R. Hunt) Faden & D.R. Hunt, Costus malortieanus H. Wendl., Costus scaber Ruiz & Pav., Cyperus floridanus Britton ex Small, Qyperus papyrus L., Cyperus squarrosus L., Cyperus tenuis Sw., Cyperus unifolius Boeck., Eleocharis debilis Kunth, Eleocharis minutiflora Boeck., Eleocharis oligantha C.B. Clarke, Fuirena robusta Kunth, Furcraea stratiotes J. B. Petersen, Halophila engelmannii Asch., Heliconia rostrata Ruiz & Pav., Hydrocleys nymphoides (Willd.) Buchenau, Kyllinga nemoralis (J.R. & G. Forst.) Dandy ex Hutchinson & Dalz., Maranta gibba Sm., Rhynchospora domingensis Urb., Rhynchospora fascicularis subsp. fascicularis var. distans (Michx.) Chapm., Rhynchospora radicans subsp. microcephala (Bertero ex Spreng.) W.W. Thomas, Ruppia didyma Sw., Scleria brittonii Core, Scleria havanensis Britton, Scleria verticillata Muhl. ex Willd., Spathiphyllum wallisii Regel., and Xyris curtissii Malme.

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