Pharmacodynamic activity of amphotericin B deoxycholate is associated with peak plasma concentrations in a neutropenic murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

Wiederhold, N.P.; Tam, V.H.; Chi, J.; Prince, R.A.; Kontoyiannis, D.P.; Lewis, R.E.

Antimicrobial Agents and ChemoTherapy 50(2): 469-473


ISSN/ISBN: 0066-4804
PMID: 16436698
DOI: 10.1128/aac.50.2.469-473.2006
Accession: 004459330

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We conducted a dose fractionation study of neutropenic, corticosteroid-immunosuppressed mice to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) parameter most closely associated with amphotericin B (AMB) efficacy in the treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were determined by a nonparametric population pharmacokinetic analysis of plasma drug concentrations following single intraperitoneal doses (0.25, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg of body weight) of amphotericin B deoxycholate. Three dosage groups (0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 mg/kg) fractionated into three dosing intervals (every 8 h [q8h], q24h, or q72h) were tested to discriminate between the PK/PD parameters (the ratio of maximum concentration of drug in serum [Cmax]/MIC, the ratio of area under the concentration-time curve/MIC, and percentage of time above MIC) most closely associated with AMB efficacy over a range of clinically achievable exposures in humans. The efficacy of each regimen was determined by quantitative PCR and survival. Reductions in pulmonary fungal burden and improvements in survival were maximized at the highest peak plasma concentrations in each of the dosage groups. Reductions in pulmonary fungal burden and increased survival were most closely associated with Cmax/MIC, with maximal activity occurring as the Cmax/MIC approached 2.4. In our model, Cmax/MIC is the PK/PD parameter most closely associated with efficacy in the treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. These data predict that less frequently administered, higher dosages of AMB would optimize efficacy.