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Polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid isomers in breast milk are associated with plasma non-esterified and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition in lactating women

Torres, A.G.; Ney, J.G.; Meneses, Fávia.; Trugo, Nádia.M.F.

British Journal of Nutrition 95(3): 517-524

2006


ISSN/ISBN: 0007-1145
PMID: 16512938
DOI: 10.1079/bjn20051645
Accession: 004461450

Maternal adipose tissue is a major contributor to breast milk long-chain fatty acids, probably through the pool of plasma NEFA. The fatty acid composition of the erythrocyte membrane (EM) is a biochemical index of the intake of fatty acids not synthesized endogenously and of PUFA and long-chain PUFA fatty acid status. The present study investigated the associations between breast milk fatty acid composition and the composition of plasma NEFA and of EM fatty acids with special reference to PUFA, long-chain PUFA and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The detailed fatty acid composition of mature breast milk was also reported. Thirty-three healthy, lactating Brazilian women donated milk samples; of these, twenty-four also donated blood samples in an observational cross-sectional study. Breast milk fatty acid composition presented several associations with NEFA and EM composition, which explained most (greater than or equal to 50 %) of the variability of selected milk PUFA, long-chain PUFA and CLA. Milk CLA was associated with fatty acids that are markers of dairy fat intake in the diet, NEFA and EM. In general, breast milk n-3 fatty acids and CLA, but not n-6 fatty acids, were associated with EM composition, whereas both the n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and CLA in milk were associated with NEFA composition, possibly owing to its role as a direct source of fatty acids for breast milk. These findings emphasize the contribution of the NEFA pool derived from the adipose tissue to the long-chain fatty acid composition of breast milk.

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