Potentiation of a survival signal in the ischemic heart by resveratrol through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1/cAMP response element-binding protein signaling
Das, S.; Tosaki, A.; Bagchi, D.; Maulik, N.; Das, D.K.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 317(3): 980-988
Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound found abundantly in grape skins and red wines, has been found to pharmacologically precondition the heart against ischemia reperfusion injury through the potentiation of a survival signal involving cAMP response element-binding protein-dependent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt-BclII pathway. The present study was designed to determine whether, similar to ischemic preconditioning, resveratrol uses mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) as upstream signaling targets. The isolated rat hearts were preperfused for 15 min with Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer in the absence (control) or presence of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 inhibitor 2'-amino-3'-methoxyflavone (PD98059), p38 MAPK inhibitor 4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)-1H-imidazole (SB-202190), mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK-1) inhibitor N-[2-(4-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinoline (H89), protein kinase A inhibitor (9S,10S,12R)-2,3,9,10,11,12-hexahydro-10hydroxy-9-methyl-1-oxo-9,12-epoxy-1H-diindolo[1,2,3fg: 3',2',1'-kl]-pyrrolo[3,4-i][1,6]benzodiazocine-10-carboxylic acid hexyl ester (KT5720), resveratrol only, resveratrol plus PD98059, resveratrol plus SB-202190, resveratrol plus H89, or resveratrol plus KT5720. Consistent with previous reports, resveratrol provided cardioprotection as evidenced by its ability to improve postischemic ventricular function, reduction of myocardial infarct size, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The cardioprotection afforded by resveratrol was partially abolished with PD98059 or SB-202190, suggesting that ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK play roles in resveratrol-mediated preconditioning. An MSK-1 inhibitor, H89, abolished resveratrol-mediated preconditioning, indicating MSK-1 to be the downstream target molecule for both ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. KT5720 had no effect on resveratrol-mediated cardioprotection. Corroborating these results, Western blot analysis revealed phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, MAPK-activated protein (MAPKAP) kinase 2, and MSK-1 with resveratrol and inhibition of phosphorylation with corresponding inhibitors. These results showed for the first time that resveratrol triggers an MAPK signaling pathway involving ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK, the former using MSK-1 as the downstream target and the latter, using both MAPKAP kinase 2 and MSK-1 as downstream targets.