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A species specific flavonoid from pyrus ussuriensis and pyrus aromatica and its geographical distribution in japan



A species specific flavonoid from pyrus ussuriensis and pyrus aromatica and its geographical distribution in japan



Japanese Journal of Breeding 33(1): 1-14



To clarify the taxonomical status and the geographical differentiation of pear cultivars in Japan, the occurrence of a species-specific flavonoid in leaf extracts was surveyed on 31 Pyrus spp., 171 East Asian pear cultivars, and several uncultivated wild clones in Japan and other places. A brilliant yellow spot under UV light, with small Rf values, 0.04 in BXA (n-BuOH/xylene/HOAc/H2O, 6:4:2:8) and 0.02 in 2% HOAc (acetic acid) solvent was found in the extracts from the Ussurian pear (P. ussuriensis Max.) native to north China and north-central Korea, from Iwateyamanashi (P. aromatica Nakai et Kikuchi) native to the Tohoku region in Japan, and from their cultivars, but not from other East Asian Pyrus spp. nor from European and Mediterranean species and their cultivars. This spot contained the flavonol aglycone (F-Ar), which seems to be a specific flavonoid for the above species, and a useful chemotaxonomical marker in the genus Pyrus. In Japan, the occurrence of F-Ar was restricted to the old native cultivars originating in the Tohoku region and to the wild clones originating in the Kanto and Chubu regions and in Iwate prefecture. It was not found in the old cultivars native to Kanto, Hokuriku and Kyushu regions. The distribution of cultivars and clones containing F-Ar nearly covered the native area of the Iwateyamanashi (P. aromatica). Most of the recent cultivars lacked F-Ar except for 5 cultivars including 'Nijisseiki'.

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