Action of oophagous natural enemies of lymantria dispar lepidoptera lymantriidae in the mamora forest morocco
Entomophaga 24(2): 163-176
ISSN/ISBN: 0013-8959 Accession: 004660722
Natural enemies attacking L. dispar (L.) eggs in Morocco are larvae of the predaceous Coleoptera Trogoderma versicolor (Creutzer), Anthrenus verbasci (L.) and Tenebroides maroccanus Reitter and the Hymenoptera Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Howard) and possibly Telenomus spp. and Gryon sp. O. kuvanae impact increases during summer but levels off during autumn. By the beginning of winter these natural enemies had destroyed 76% of eggs deposited on trees from ground level to 2.5 m, the predators having consumed about 50% of the eggs and the parasite having killed about 26%. Above 2.5 m all eggs were dead, 76% due to unknown natural causes and 24% killed by predators and parasite. Size of egg mass had no influence on impact of the oophagous insects. There was a relation between parasitism and predation since predation removes between 22-49% of the eggs (in Sept. and Oct.); masses least disturbed were the most heavily parasitized. Predation and parasitism varied greatly from tree to tree. Heterogeneous distribution of the parasite is related to microclimatic conditions.