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Alcohol dehydrogenase of poly ploid wheats and their di ploid relatives the phylogeny of tetra ploid wheats



Alcohol dehydrogenase of poly ploid wheats and their di ploid relatives the phylogeny of tetra ploid wheats



Genetika 12(11): 22-28



Hexaploid wheats belonging to Triticum aestivum L. s.l. and tetraploid wheats of the Emmer group, T. turgidum L. s.l. all reveal identical electrophoretic phenotype of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), consisting of 3 closely spaced zones of isoenzymes genetically controlled by the homeoalleles Adh-1 and Adh-3 of the genomes A and B, respectively. Tetraploid wheats T. araraticum Jakubz. (24) and T. timopheevi Zhuk. (2), diploid wheats T. urartu Thum. ex Gandil. (14), T. boeoticum Boiss., including var. boeoticum and var. thaoudar (52), and T. monococcum L. s. s. (10), diploid goatgrasses Aegilops bicornis (Forsk.) Jaub. et Spach (5), A. longissima Schweinf. et Muschl. (12), A. mutica Boiss. (6), A. caudata L. (6), A. comosa Sibth. et Sm. (2) and A. umbellulata Zhuk. (2), all carry the allele Adh-3. The number of accessions studied for each species is given in parentheses. Allele Adh-1 characteristic of the genome A of the Emmer wheats was not encountered among the accessions of diploid wheats and goatgrasses studied. Individual genetic polymorphism of ADH isoenzymes controlled by 2 alleles, Adh-3 and Adh-5, in 1 locus was encountered in 15 accessions of A. speltoides Tausch, while the remaining 32 accessions were practically monomorphic with respect to allele Adh-3. Alleles Adh-1 and Adh-5 are mutant derivatives of the evolutionary more ancient allele Adh-3, which was found among the species of the genera Agropyron Gaertn. and Elymus L. The mutation Adh-3 .fwdarw. Adh-1 possibly occurred at the tetraploid level during the evolutionary divergence of T. dicoccoides (Koern.) Aaronsohn from T. araraticum Jakubz. The hypothetical existence of an unknown or extinct donor of the genome A to the Emmer wheats carrying the allele Adh-1 is considered less probable. The hypothesis of monophyletic origin of both groups of contemporary tetraploid wheats, T. turgidum L. s.l. and T. timopheevi Zhuk. s.l., from a common amphidiploid ancestor is supported.

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