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Antigenic and biological relationships between human corona virus oc 43 and neo natal calf diarrhea corona virus

Antigenic and biological relationships between human corona virus oc 43 and neo natal calf diarrhea corona virus

Journal of General Virology 54(1): 91-102

Monospecific antisera were prepared in mice to human coronavirus OC43 and neonatal calf diarrhea coronavirus (NCDCV) which had been previously adapted to growth in suckling mouse brain. Brain suspension from infected suckling mice was used as immunogen. The antigenic relationship between OC43 and NCDCV was studied by the indirect immunoperoxidase antibody technique, by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and a new infectious center-reduction neutralization test. In mouse immune sera, a 2-way cross-reaction between OC43 and NCDCV was detected. The antigenic relationship appeared to be closer for internal (as shown by immunoperoxidase staining) as compared to surface antigens (as shown by HI and neutralization). In primary infections of natural hosts there was a high degree of cross-reactivity between the 2 coronavirus strains for both surface and internal antigens, and homologous and heterologous titers were consistently within an 8-fold dilution difference by all tests. Most human adults and calves had antibody to both OC43 and NCDCV and geometric mean titers of homologous antibody were higher than titers of heterologous antibody. Although OC43 and NCDCV share antigenic determinants, they possess several different biological properties including plaque morphology by the infectious center assay, agglutination of 1-day-old chick erythrocytes and resistance of hemagglutinin to physical and chemical treatments.

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