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Biological control of the walnut aphid in california usa impact of the parasite trioxys pallidus



Biological control of the walnut aphid in california usa impact of the parasite trioxys pallidus



Hilgardia 47(1): 1-14



The interrelationship of an Iranian ecotype of T. pallidus (Hal.) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) and the walnut aphid, Chromaphis juglandicola (Kalt.), (Homoptera: Callaphididae), was assessed over 4 yr at 2 localities in California. Additional data were obtained from other localities. T. pallidus, a highly efficient parasite, which is biologically adapted to and phenologically synchronized with C. juglandicola, has provided biological control of this pest. T. pallidus dampens the aphid's vernal oscillation and normally restrains the amplitude of the summer and autumnal oscillations. Major economic benefits were realized by the elimination of the aphid as a pest in springtime. T. pallidus is at times heavily attacked by non-specific hyperparasites, but these only hinder it slightly. Certain insecticides can disrupt T. pallidus activity, permitting aphid outbreaks. Prolonged aphid scarcity, possibly abetted by hyperparasitism, also may cause a breakdown in parasite activity and a temporary aphid resurgence in midseason. During the 4 yr of investigation, this occurred once in one of the study plots.

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