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Calcium calmodulin dependent protein kinase ii identification of autophosphorylation sites responsible for generation of calcium calmodulin independence



Calcium calmodulin dependent protein kinase ii identification of autophosphorylation sites responsible for generation of calcium calmodulin independence



Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 84(16): 5710-5714



Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II contains two types of subunit, .alpha. (Mr 50,000) and .beta. (Mr 60,000/58,000), both of which undergo Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent autophosphorylation. Autophosphorylation is known to convert the enzyme to a Ca2+/calmodulin-independent form. In the present study, we have characterized the autophosphorylation sites on rat forebrain Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II that are most likely to be responsible for the generation of Ca2+/calmodulin-independence. Under conditions (0.degree. C, low concentrations of ATP) sufficient to generate close to maximal Ca2+/calmodulin-independence, only a few of the phosphorylatable sites on the enzyme became phosphorylated. These autophosphorylation sites were examined by phospho amino acid analysis, two-dimensional thermolytic phosphopeptide mapping, and high-performance liquid chromatography. The time course of phosphorylation of threonine in both .alpha. and .beta. subunits was similar to the time course of the generation of Ca2+/calmodulin-independence. Moreover, the time course of phosphorylation of one set of peptides, referred to as peptide 1/1', present in both .alpha. and .beta. subunits was similar to the time course of the generation of Ca2+/calmodulin-independence. Threonine was the only amino acid phosphorylated in peptide 1/1'. An additional peptide, referred to as peptide 2, was phosphorylated in the .beta. subunit. The time course of phosphorylation of peptide 2, which also contained only phosphothreonine, did not parallel the time course of the generation of Ca2+/calmodulin-independence. It is likely that the phosphorylation of a threonine residue on peptide 1/1' is responsible for the generation of Ca2+/calmodulin-independence of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.

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