+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ PDF Full Text
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn

+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Changes in blood content and histology during growth of antlers in red deer (Cervus elaphus) and their relationship to plasma testosterone levels

Changes in blood content and histology during growth of antlers in red deer (Cervus elaphus) and their relationship to plasma testosterone levels

Journal of Anatomy 158: 31-42

Antlers were removed sequentially from 18 mature red deer stags between 28 and 112 days after casting of the previous hard antlers and the blood volume determined and structure investigated histologically. One antler from each stag was removed during the growth phase, the other at velvet shedding. Antler blood volume increased linearly, with increasing antler weight, at a rate of 194 ml/kg between 28 and 91 days after casting but subsequently declined rapidly. A zone of mineralisation occurred between 5 and 10 cm below the antler tip until 91 days but was subsequently markedly reduced in size and replaced by bone. Between 91 and 112 days growth slowed and a rapid increase in formation of compact cortical bone occurred in the periphery of the whole antler. These changes were associated with increasing circulating levels of testosterone.

(PDF emailed within 1 workday: $29.90)

Accession: 004906018

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 3225223

Related references

Histology of the red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) antlers and long bone. Folia Universitatis Agriculturae Stetinensis, Zootechnica (47): 41-46, 2005

Relationship between rank and plasma testosterone and cortisol in red deer males (Cervus elaphus). Physiology & Behavior 101(5): 628-634, 2011

Growth and mineralisation of antlers in red deer (Cervus elaphus). New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 302: 305-315, 1987

Regulation of blood pressure in the growing antlers of red deer (Cervus elaphus L.). Ricerche di Zoologia Applicata alla Caccia (Suppl): 4: 115-139, 1962

The effect of changes in length of daylight on the growth of antlers in the deer (Cervus elaphus L.). Folia Biologica Krakow, 2: 133-143, 1954

The effect of the length of the daylight on the growth of the antlers in the deer Cervus elaphus L. Folia Biol 2(2): 133-143, 1954

Aging and mature antlers of a red deer stag cervus elaphus elaphus in a zoological garden. Zeitschrift fuer Jagdwissenschaft 29(2): 69-74, 1983

Growth and development of morphological characters of red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) antlers in the Warmia and Mazury Province. Sylwan 148(7): 37-45, 2004

Observations on the phenotypic relationships between anti-CarLA salivary IgA antibody response, nematode infection levels and growth rates in farmed red (Cervus elaphus) and wapiti hybrid deer (Cervus elaphus canadensis). Veterinary Parasitology 203(1-2): 160-166, 2014

Comparison of seasonal patterns of growth, voluntary feed intake and plasma hormone concentrations in young sambar deer (Cervus unicolor) and red deer (Cervus elaphus). Journal of Agricultural Science 125(1): 109-124, 1995

Effect of ruminally protected methionine on body weight gain and growth of antlers in red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the humid tropics. Tropical Animal Health and Production 44(4): 681-684, 2012

Fluoride content and mineralization of red deer (Cervus elaphus) antlers and pedicles from fluoride polluted and uncontaminated regions. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 32(2): 222-227, 1997

The fluoride content of antlers as an indicator of fluoride exposure in red deer (Cervus elaphus): A historical biomonitoring study. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 38(1): 121-127, 1999

Regeneration of antlers in red deer, Cervus elaphus. Bull Acad Polonaise Sci Cl Ii 3(7): 273-278, 1955

Regionalization of red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) breeding - The weight of antlers as a parameter differentiating the red deer population in Warmia and Mazury. Polish Journal of Natural Sciences 20(1): 259-276, 2006