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Chemical basis for the relationship between ophrys orchids and their pollinators ii. volatile compounds of ophrys insectifera and ophrys speculum as insect mimetic attractants excitants



Chemical basis for the relationship between ophrys orchids and their pollinators ii. volatile compounds of ophrys insectifera and ophrys speculum as insect mimetic attractants excitants



Chemica Scripta 27(2): 303-312



Volatile compounds from the orchids Ophrys insectifera and O. speculum and their respective pollinators of the hymenopteran genera Argogorytes and Campsoscolia are investigated using gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry. The volatile compounds from the flowers and the solitary wasps are isolated by solvent extraction and sorption techniques. Six different isolation techniques of the fragrance from O. insectifera are compared. Chemical similarity consisting of a series of aliphatic straight chain hydrocarbons are found between the fragrance emitted by O. insectifera flower labella and the Dufour gland secretion of Argogorytes mystaceus and A. fargei females. 3-Hydroxy-fatty acid methyl esters and 2,5-dimethyl-3-isopentylpyrazine are found in the cephalic secretion of Campsoscolia ciliata males and females. Field tests using Argogorytes males and made with authentic and synthetic odour samples. The results of the chemical analyses and the field tests are discussed in terms of chemical mimesis, chemotaxonomy, and hybridization.

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Accession: 004936266

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