Comparison of stomatal action of orange citrus sinensis cultivar valencia soybean glycine max cultivar oribi and wheat triticum aestivum cultivar sst 3 under field conditions

Meyer, W.S.; Green, G.C.

Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 8(1): 65-76

1981


ISSN/ISBN: 0310-7841
Accession: 005012600

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Abstract
Diurnal trends in leaf diffusive conductance, Cs, leaf water potential .psi.L and rates of evapotranspiration ET were monitored on orchard-grown orange trees and field-grown crops of soybeans and wheat. Changes in these measurments were observed on soybeans and wheat as the soil water deficit increased. Maximum values of Cs of well watered plants differed between the 3 spp. (soybeans > wheat > orange)probably as a result of different stomatal sizes and densities. Diurnal trends in Cs were common for all species, with maximum values occurring during midmorning followed by slightly lower midday values. The reduction in Cs around midday became more pronounced as the soil water deficit increased. Slight increases in Cs values of soybeans and wheat were recorded during late afternoon. This pattern of stomatal aperture change can reasonably be explained in terms of responses to both radiant energy and plant water status. The pattern seems to comply with the premise that stomates interact to optimize the rate of assimilation while minimizing the rate of transpiration in a given environment. Stomatal action appeared to have little effect on daily ET in soybeans under well watered conditions; ET was closely related to incoming radiant energy. The low midday values of Cs apparently caused a midday plateau in the rate of ET in wheat, while even lower daytime Cs values for orange seemed to cause a low and fairly constant rate of Et which was relatively insensitive to changes in incoming radiant energy. The value of .psi.L attained during mid morning at which Cs initially began to decline was fairly constant for soybeans (-0.9 to -1.1 MPa ) as the predawn .psi.L decreased from -0.1 to -0.8 MPa. A similar decline in predawn .psi.L for wheat caused a change in the value of .psi.L at which initial decreases in Cs were observed from -1.3 MPa to -2.4 MPa. There appeared to be little adjustment of stomatal action in soybeans but considerable adjustment in wheat.