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Control of flowering of orchard grass dactylis glomerata 2. influence of day length on floral induction inflorescence differentiation and its development in seedling



Control of flowering of orchard grass dactylis glomerata 2. influence of day length on floral induction inflorescence differentiation and its development in seedling



Sochi Shikenjo Kenkyu Hokoku (16): 47-55



It has been reported in orchardgrass that short-day and/or low temperature are required for floral induction after juvenile stage and that inflorescence differentiation and its development occur under long-day conditions when floral-induction is attained. In the previous paper, the optimum temperature was found for floral induction in seedling. This study was carried out in order to clarify the influence of day length on floral induction, inflorescence differentiation and its development in seedlings. Seedlings of Aonami, Latar, Aberystwyth S143, O.S.G.-7, EV-730 and D. glomerata ssp. judaica grown for 7 wk after sowing under continuous light in warm glasshouse (25.degree. C in day/15.degree. C at night) were subjected to floral induction treatments with different day lengths for 6 wk. Floral induction treatments were done under natural low temperatures in spring, 1975 (Experiment I), in autumn, 1975 (Experiment II) and in spring, 1978 (Experiment III). After these treatments, their heading behavior was investigated under continuous light in warm glasshouse. Floral induction occurred most effectively in the range of daylength of 9 to 11 h in Aonami, O.S.G.-7 and EV-730, 8-13 h in Latar, 11-12 h in Aberystwyth S 143 and 8-15 h in judaica and was delayed when the daylength of the treatment deviated from the range mentioned for each material. In Aberystwyth S 143, the responsiveness to floral induction treatment with the daylengths shorter than 10 h was much lower than in Aonami, Latar, O.S.G-7 and judaica. After the floral-induction treatment with 15 h daylength, almost all plants of Aonami, Latar, Aberystwyth S 143 and O.S.G.-7 remained vegetative but about half of the plants of EV-730 headed under continuous light in the warm glasshouse. Responsiveness to floral induction treatment was lowest at each daylength in Experiment II, in which somewhat higher temperatures and more precipitation were recorded during the treatment than in Experiment I and III. But the differences caused by daylength in the responsiveness were observed most markedly in Experiment II. It was suggested that the effect of daylength on floral induction was partly modified by such factors as temperature or nutrients. In Experiment I, when the daylength of floral induction treatment was natural (12 h 5 min to 13 h 41 min) as compared with 8 or 10 h, mean number of days and of leaves that had emerged on main stem after the end of treatment to heading decreased in Aonami, Latar, Aberystwyth S 143 and O.S.G.-7, though the degree of decrease was smaller in Latar than in the others. Only in judaica, as the daylength of the treatment was longer, the plants headed earlier and had fewer leaves. It was inferred that inflorescence differentiation and development followed floral induction during floral induction treatment when the daylength of the treatment was longer than the critical daylength for inflorescence differentiation and its development and that there was a difference of the critical daylength among these materials.

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