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Control of flowering of orchard grass dactylis glomerata 6. influence of temperature and day length on floral induction in aged plants



Control of flowering of orchard grass dactylis glomerata 6. influence of temperature and day length on floral induction in aged plants



Grassland Science 28(2): 182-187



In orchardgrass, the low temperature and short-day requirement for floral induction become lower with the advance of plant age after the juvenile stage. The effective range of temperature and daylength on floral induction in aged plants was determined. Clonal plants of cultivars Aonami, Later, Aberystwyth S143 and EV-700 were grown under continuous light in a warm (25.degree. C da/15.degree. C night) glasshouse for > 6 mo. before being separated into individual tillers, from which aged tillers were chosen for the experiments. The tillers were subjected to floral induction treatment of outdoor or unheated glasshouse temperatures with natural daylengths for 5 wk. The experiments were conducted in 2 mo. intervals from Oct. 1976 to Aug. 1977. After the treatments, they were retransferred to a warm glasshouse under continuous light and their heading behavior was observed. Floral induction was promoted in the range of mean temperature from 5.3-15.8.degree. C in 'Aberystwyth S143' and 5.3-19.0.degree. C in 'Aonami' and 'Latar' and retarded when mean temperature was higher than those ranges described above in these 3 materials. While the whole range of mean temperature used in this study (5.3-22.9.degree. C) was effective on floral induction in 'EV 700', daylength changed seasonally from the minimum of 9 h, 37 min to the maximum of 14 h, 43 min. This range of daylength was shorter than the critical daylength for floral induction in all materials tested. As the daylength during floral induction treatments increased, the number of days from the beginning of treatment to heading decreased. From the results of the treatment in June during which daylengths were > 14 h, 32 min and temperatures were moderately high (mean temperature; 19.0.degree. C), it was estimated that 15.2, 21.8, 21.3 and 11.5 days were required for floral induction in 'Aonami', 'Latar', 'Aberystwyth S143' and 'EV-700', respectively. The estimated values suggested that, in aged plants, the period required for floral induction under fairly long daylength and high temperature was similar to that under short daylength and low temperature. Evidently the effective range of temperature and daylength on floral induction is markedly wider in aged plants than in seedlings.

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