Cytology and leaf spot resistance of section arachis amphi di ploids and their hybrids with arachis hypogaea

Gardner, M.E.B.; Stalker, H.T.

Crop Science 23(6): 1069-1074


ISSN/ISBN: 0011-183X
Accession: 005087164

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Improvement of the cultivated peanut, A. hypogaea L., by utilizing the germplasm resources found in related members of the genus is complicated by differences in genomic relationships and ploidy levels. To circumvent sterility in interspecific hybrids due to ploidy differences, amphidiploids representing 23 hybrid combinations of 6 sect. Arachis nom. nud. species [A. cardenasii Krap. et Greg. nom. nud. (10017 GKP, PI 262141), A. chacoense Krap. et Greg. nom. nud. (10602 GKP), A. correntina (Burk.) Krap. et Greg. nom. nud. (9530-31 GKP), A. duranensis Krap. et Greg. nom. nud. (7988 K, PI 219823), A. stenosperma Greg. et Greg. nom. nud. (410 HLK, PI 338280), and A. villosa Benth (22585 B, PI 298636)] were produced. Most amphidiploids had regular meiosis and produced stainable pollen, but produced few, if any, seeds. Four of 5 attempted hybrids between A. hypogaea cv. NC 6 and early leafspot (Cercospora arachidicola Hori) resistant amphidiploids were successful. All 59 plants produced were vigorous and flowered profusely, but only 2 genotypes produced seed, and in a very limited number. The diploid species, F1 hybrids, amphidiploids, and NC 6 .times. amphidiploid hybrids were resistant to early leafspot in field evaluations. After self-pollination, F2 progenies of the NC 6 .times. amphidiploid hybrids segregated for growth habit and fertility. Several plants of the hybrid NC 6 .times. 4x(A. stenosperma Greg. et Greg. nom. nud. .times. A. chacoense Krap. et Greg. nom. nud.) produced numerous seeds, and initial sterility barriers which restricted utilization of germplasm within Arachis have been overcome for some species.