Section 6
Chapter 5,100

Degradation of branched-chain amino acids and their derived 2-oxo acids and fatty acids in human and rat heart and skeletal muscle

Wagenmakers, A.J.; Veerkamp, J.H.

Biochemical Medicine 28(1): 16-31


ISSN/ISBN: 0006-2944
PMID: 6816224
Accession: 005099148

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The oxidation of the branched-chain amino acids, leucine and valine, and their derived 2-oxo acids and branched-chain short-chain fatty acids were studied in intact muscular preparations and homogenates of man and rat. In rat hemidiaphragm, transamination rates of the amino acids were higher than oxidative decarboxylation rates and oxidative decarboxylation rates of the 2-oxo acids were higher than those of the corresponding amino acids at the same concentration. The last phenomenon also was observed in rat and human heart slices. Transaminase and 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase activities were much higher in homogenates than in intact preparations from the same muscle. Homogenates from heart muscle generally had a higher transaminase and 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase activity than those from skeletal muscle, and those from rat muscle, had higher activities than those from comparable human muscle. Homogenates from rat heart and liver had similar 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase activities. In homogenates and mitochondria, CO2 was only produced by oxidative decarboxylation of the branched-chain 2-oxo acids and no CO2 was produced from the corresponding branched-chain short-chain fatty acids. In all intact muscular preparations, the branched-chain 2-oxo acids were oxidized more to completeness and CO2 production from the corresponding short-chain fatty acids was observed. The further degradation of the branched-chain 2-oxo acids beyond .alpha.-decarboxylation appeared to be limited, for 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate still more than for 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate.

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