Development of liver carcinoma and its related factors especially alpha 1 acid glyco protein alpha macro globulins and collagenolytic activities
Journal of UOEH 4(2): 139-156
Serum protein-bound carbohydrates, especially sialic acid and hexose, are significantly increased in patients with primary and metastatic liver carcinoma whereas they are decreased in liver cirrhosis. .alpha.1-Acid glycoprotein, .alpha.1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin are markedly increased in sera of patients with liver carcinoma whereas .alpha.2-macroglobulin is decreased. Serum .alpha.2-macroglobulin levels are apparently increased in the patients with progressive or active liver cirrhosis. These findings may suggest that the stimulation of B-lymphocyte function takes place in liver cirrhosis whereas the suppression of B-cell function takes place in liver carcinoma, because .alpha.2-macroglobulin is thought to be produced mainly by B-lymphocytes. Suppressor T-lymphocyte functions may be decreased in liver cirrhosis whereas they are increased in liver carcinoma. In liver carcinoma, .alpha.1-acid glycoprotein produced from tumor tiussues may play a role in the suppression of the progression of liver cancer, and in the repair of the immunological biodefense mechanisms in the course of development from liver cirrhosis to liver carcinoma. Unmasked collagenolytic activities are markedly increased in the surrounding and adjacent tissues of human and experimental liver carcinoma when compared with normal controls. The production of collagenase (or procollagenase) is enhanced in the areas around the tumor due to unknown causes and the enzyme is masked and inactivated immediately by .alpha.-macroglobulins (.alpha.2-M and .alpha.1-M). These facts may be significant as the bio-defense mechanisms against the development of liver carcinoma.