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Development of soils in quaternary deposits of north india

Development of soils in quaternary deposits of north india

Indian Journal of Earth Sciences 14(3-4): 329-334

The soils of north India are mainly derived from alluvium brought down by the Indus and Ganges river systems during Pleistocene and Recent times. Simultaneously loess was deposited in the Kashmir Valley during the deglaciation c. 15,000 yr. BP to c. 9,000 yr. BP. Studies on selected soils developed in these Quaternary deposits indicate sufficient evidence of pedogenesis. The pedogenic processes in alluvium developed under semi-arid to sub-humid climatic environments and include addition (and accumulation) of organic matter, neo-calcite formation and illuviation of finer clay. In soils developed in loess under temperate humid climates, decalcification was followed by the illuviation of clay. The formation of clay enriched B-horizon through illuviation process in the uniform parent Quaternary deposits confirms the stability of the landscape. In these two different soil groups, biotite mica altered to triocathedral vermiculite and smectite, which have moved preferentially downward enriching the B-horizons.

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Accession: 005135370

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