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Ecology of rhizoctonia solani the causal organism of sheath blight of rice 1st year report



Ecology of rhizoctonia solani the causal organism of sheath blight of rice 1st year report



National Science Council Monthly 7(12): 1208-1219



There were many sclerotia floating on the irrigation water in the paddy field 1 mo. after transplanting. Each 112.5 cm2 of sclerotium trapping cage caught 25 sclerotia every 10 days in the 1st crop of rice and 79.4 sclerotia in the 2nd crop in the Pingtung area [Taiwan]. There were 78 sclerotia in the 1st crop and 22 sclerotia in the 2nd crop in the Taichung area [Taiwan]. Each stubble of the 2nd crop of rice carried about 15.4 sclerotia in the Pingtung area, or .apprx. 31 .times. 105 sclerotia/ha of field. Sclerotia on the surface of field soil survived for longer than 16 mo., but the longevity was less than 8 mo. if they were buried more than 2 cm in soil. The pathogen actively survived as a parasite on some paddy weeds, such as Lindernia cordifolia, Ludwigia prostrata, Rotala indica, Scirpus maritimus and Echinochloa crus-galli. Abundant sclerotia were also produced on diseased plants of E. crus-galli. It also caused black scurf on potatoes, which was a winter crop of certain paddy fields in the Taichung area. Although there was no apparent difference in the susceptibility to sheath blight among rice varieties, the spot size differed. This indicated that different degrees of disease tolerance might be found in different varieties. The disease was the most prevalent at 28.degree. C. The spot expanded rapidly at 24.degree. C. No disease was observed at 12.degree. C. RH (relative humidity) 81-92% were the best conditions for the disease occurrence. RH over 95% and under 65% were not suitable.

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